Old New Year (Feast of Basil)
Basil's feast is called Old New Year and celebrate it on January 1, Old Style (January 14, according to the new). This is one of the three great winter holidays: Christmas, the feast of St. Basil and Baptism. St. Basil the Great of old enjoyed special reverence among the faithful people of East Slavic and was the patron of agriculture. And in the Gospel teaching on this day Christ was circumcised, and so try not to cut.
January 14 owners wake up early, before sunrise, clean straw on the floor, sweep the house. From St. Basil pm to sweep the floor no one, not to sweep out and bring happiness and the fate of the house.
Old New Year looking forward to the boys, because on that day he drops a good opportunity to earn money and goodies. In the morning, at dawn, typing in pockets or gloves grain, they go to the neighbors and relatives posevat. Often posevayut wheat can posevat rye, barley, oats. Not posevayut peas, because they believe that it arose from the tears of the Mother of God and the ritual sowing them can cause tears in the family, and buckwheat "because zavedutsya fleas in the house," or "is a dispute." Sowing the boys say: "Seysya, born rye, wheat, and all the food for good luck, health, New Year, to better freak, like last year, hemp insole, linen on my knees to you, sir, my head does not hurt, "or" Happy New Year, good luck to you were bullheads and cows gave birth to carrots and beets, squash and cucumbers, potatoes and cabbage, so that your girl was "tlusta"! The word "tlusta" is stately, plump.
The hosts treat posevalnikov cakes chunk "Basil" (ritual bread that was baked specially for the holiday), nuts, candy, paying little money. But more could make the boy who came to sow the first. He was given thresh Yule Sheaf (Diduh), which stood in a corner of the Nativity, or break Diduh pumpkin, which lay in a nest under the table. Makogon sheaf threshed, grain and straw from it are considered miraculous. Diduh grain stored until planting and sown with seeds on a field that was a good harvest. Pumpkin cooked porridge, it was treated as pets, of Diduh seeds (pumpkin) was collected in a bowl, dried and sown in the spring in the beds, it is good to have given birth to all the pumpkins and vegetables.
Straw from Diduh burned on New Year's morning in the garden. It is believed that the smoke from Diduh very useful, it provides a good harvest for the coming year, protects trees from frost, protect against pests. According to popular belief that smoke does not only protect the trees, but to the families, so all the young and old jumping over the fire, to be healthy and not get sick in the next year, the children were transferred through the smoke in her arms.
According to folk beliefs, spirits and the spirits of the ancestors of the field to help raise crop, hiding from the harvesters in the last sheaf. The sheaf solemnly carried from the field during obzhinki, then stored in the pantry, or shed to the Holy Supper, and the Holy Supper it was called "Diduh" with honors brought into the house, put on a bench in the corner, on the spot where the expensive plant guests. Didukh is in the house of the Holy night before the New Year and the New Year it is burned. In ancient times, the Slavs had a custom of burning corpses. Apparently the smoke ancestral spirits flew south for the spring to get back on the field.
In some villages the right bank were to arrange customs centers common to the whole community. New masked characters represent the arrival of ancestors from the dead, and the burning of masks can be associated with funeral lights with which ancestors left the real world into the world of the dead.
Finishes the action cleaning water, which was attended by all the entertainers. Malankara gang went to the river, where she washed, sometimes bathed in water, splashing, and sometimes resorted to bathing in the hole. Dressed in Malanka in any case could not avoid swimming, otherwise, according to the Ukrainian village Belyavintsy old-timers, the guy who carried out this role could grow a tail.
Besides these Christmas rituals in historical sources of the last century in the Ukraine is fixed and ceremonial plowing. Schedrovalniki New Year's Eve pulled plows and perform a symbolic plowing snow and earth. Sometimes costumed New Year brought into the house or just plow chapygi and simulated plowing, then posevali. This confirms the assumption that the New Year in the old days, our ancestors celebrated the spring. Christmas ritual actions associated with plowing, posevaniem, threshing Sheaf, performed exclusively by men or boys, because these were considered masculine.
On the first day of the New Year to all closely watched, because everything has a prophetic significance. Standing in the church during the morning service, the farmer eyeing as candles burn in the chandelier, if a burning candle wick bent hook - will harvest this year, but if the oppression on the candle sticks, like an empty ear on the stalk - expect a poor harvest.
If the night on New Year's calm and clear, will be a happy year, not only for humans but also for animals.
If the sun comes up fun, the whole year will be happy and will be a particularly good crop of berries.
If frost abundantly covers all the trees, the harvest of grain.
Before you sit down to dinner, the father gives his son a cake and said, "Eat, my son, and remember, if you happen to lose your way in the winter, remember, with what you eat on New Year's cake - and otyschesh road."
Depending on the nature, people say, "I'll go to the church to the Lord granted a year to go to the temple of God," or "drunk vodka to a year it was for that drink!"
"On New Year's not good to drink one glass, and all for the two to live in a pair of old, and the young couple found themselves" - so say a Christmas dinner when guests take.
If the sky is closed on New Year's clouds, to the side of the harvest of grain - there hopefully happiness. Snow falls on this day - will be happy year.
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