Malanka (Epiphany Eve)
Malanka celebration celebrate New Year's Eve (December 31, old style, January 13 new), yet it is called Generous evening or generous (Second) kutey. In contrast, during the evening of St. Generous serves a rich dinner table, which is dominated by meat dishes. In some villages, Vinnytsia, even krovyanki, which are the traditional New Year dish called "Malanka". Second time during the winter and Christmas time preparing kutyu.Vypekayut special bread "Malanka".
Once a woman kneading tub baking ritual New Year's bread, not my hands on a test, she went with her husband to scare the trees that bring forth bad. The man was carrying an ax or a stick woman Wisp made of Diduh (straw lying on the floor of the Holy pm). Going up against a tree, a man knocked on it three times an ax, or a stick and said, "What are you, a pear, not bear? I'll cut down, cut to pieces! "Or," You will not give birth, I will chop, and will give birth, will be respected. " A tree his wife answered: "Do not cut me, Wisp; bind, I'll still be of use." After that the woman wiped his hands on the test against a tree, and tied his Wisp.
The people believed that after such procedures tree scared and is sure to give a good harvest. After all, the Malanka, especially on New Year's night, the plants understand human speech, and even the animals speak in human. By the way, the animals that night to complain to God on the people if they poorly to deal with them. So on this day the cattle tended with great care, well-fed, clean and groomed.
And the mistress carefully primp, podbelivayut oven, because the night before the New Year she dances, is given. No one on this night not sleeping on the stove, not sit, do not put it on because "it hard to dance."
At dusk the village went schedruvalnikov gang in carnival costumes with music. Among the groups prevailed Malchish Community Mummers, separate walk and groups of girls. For schedruvalnikov as for kolyadnikov, there was no gender restrictions, but mostly maiden Malanka schedruvala under the windows, and groups of men dressed as millet in the house, and figures in masks at a bachelor party Malanka was considerably greater.
Among the entertainers often images Malanka, Basil, goats, grandfather with a woman, a Gypsy, a bear, a crane, a cat, etc. Malanka was a guy in a patched skirt, an old shawl, eyebrows and eyes summed up with soot, his face whitened with chalk, cheeks and lips painted red beets or cranberries. In the hands of Malanka wore tow. She liked to kiss all those who turned up, with sully them with his "make-up". In some villages of Ukrainian Dniester instead of a guy to be the Malanka choose good stout woman who had no children and was happily married.
Goat had a guy twist your hair up in a housing made from the horns of spears, to which were attached two tablets (mouth), and a strand of hemp (beard), his mouth opened and closed by clicking that scares children. Flanked hitched bell, rear - the tail of the broom. Bears dressed strong guys who are good at fighting. Their costumes were twisted up fur covers the feet tied pieces of straw, hay or sheep skins, produced from the skins and masks. Crane was a guy on stilts, or with a long neck, which was done in six.
In the role of the girl group Malanka and Vasyl do girls. Both good paint. In some places, women were limited to one schedrivnitsi costumed character - Malanka.
Going to the window, costumed in song form requested permission from the owners schedrovat:
"Ivan Goi, Vanya,
Let me go into the house Malanochku ... '
"Let the house warm heels
Let go to the stove to warm his teeth,
Let go to the stove to warm your shoulders ... '
Mummers parish was a good sign, so they are usually willingly invited into the house. Schedrovalniki went home, only received permission owners. The house is first performed schedrivky Cheering for each family member, and then sang songs about Malanka. Malanka at this time spun tow, danced, motions to simulate the actions glorified in schedrovke showing what she is good hostess did everything contrary sweeping the room from the door to the table and put her shoes on the table, the plates under the table, trying to help the hostess butterbur floor or wash the clay walls. The hosts tried to stop her "clean up" and followed closely to Malanka nothing stolen. This is for her, too, things like that, because for a stolen item, it requested additional redemption or threatened to sell it in the next room, where they say, will give more. Sometimes she specifically put some girlish thing to Malanka stole it - it foreshadowed the imminent marriage of a girl.
At this time in the hall began to bleat and stamp goat. Schedrovalniki and asked the owners to let her into the house to get warm, she won in the cold legs and horns frozen. The hosts initially refused, inventing various reasons that the goat will ruin the floor, vases eat, children parrot. Baby love to see the goat, they begged their parents to let her into the house. Schedrovalniki full of praise for his goat: it is, they say, and pretty and smart, knows how to dance and sing, tale tells people funny. The hosts finally agreed.
Entering the house, the goat first intimidated by the presence, trying to butt their horns, and then the singing schedruvalnikiv reproduced in dance what was sung in schedrivkas. All ended up being came arrows or guys, well done and hit (shot) into the right ear of a goat, in the very heart, or a left or right leg, the goat fell, legs pulled up, or fell and became lifeless. In short, the goat died.
What does this ritual? Why goat necessarily have to kill? After the goat was a symbol (a deity) fertility fields. By the way, to present a piece of uncut fields or unmade beds called goat. In Greek and Roman mythology, the gods of fertility and harvest also had evidence of similarity with the goat. In ancient times, people have noticed that on the earth, where there was domestic animals, plants grow better, yield a higher yield.
Obviously death goats - symbolized winter death vegetation fields. However, the most important ritual was not the death of the goat, and its revival. All those present in the house, as well as schedrovalniki, tried to revive the goat, her laugh. For that all the facilities were good, as long as the goat began to laugh, began to resist, is showing signs of life. Her "treated", "doctor", while commenting on his actions, so that everyone in the house laughed, chattered goat's ears, felt his teeth to make sure the old or young, and was last method - tried to "check milked a goat." Since the folk traditions goat dressed guys, this is usually a goat led to, she struggled, pulled out, signs of life.
Revival of goat meens a new life of the spring fields, gardens, pastures, nature in general. Laughter wore magical significance - ward off evil spirits, in addition believed to laugh when New Year's Eve is the whole year will be laughing, having fun and happy. Finally schedrovalniki read poetry to the wishes of happiness, good in the new year and asked to pay for the Goats, Malanka or other entertainers characters. "Give the money to patch up the bell, to have something to ring", "give a goat for hay", "Malanka on an apron", "grandfather of tobacco." Hosts instead of money or goodies offered Kose hay, straw, oats, beets, what schedrovalniki answered that they did not eat the goat, she loves fresh bread, cakes and a glass and bacon, ham and sausage. Having heard about the gifts, the house tumble "Gypsy" to "bear" and began to wonder, dance, offered to shoe horses or someone from home, the owners called for help the guards, who were also among the entertainers, and they accompanied the house noisy guests for which they received compensation from the owners.
Researchers Ukrainian Christmas rituals believe that Christian saint Melania, Memorial Day is celebrated on the last day of the year, replaced the more ancient image of the goddess Mokos (Makosh). Goddess Mokosh entered the pantheon of major pagan gods of Kievan Rus, which Vladimir idols installed on the mountain. She was the patroness of women, helped mothers during labor, contributed to women's affairs - especially spinning. Considered as the goddess of rain, the sun's sister, the goddess of fertility and the intermediary between heaven and earth.
Of ritual actions that take place on New Year's night, you can call the competition squads melankarey clowns. They tend to occur at midnight at intersections or on bridges or masonry over a stream. The competition was both individual and collective. In individual matches, each band exhibited a mummers representative. Started the fight usually costumed bears, sometimes they fight enough to determine which crowd won, and sometimes it comes to collective competition "wall" on the "wall" and who gets to press. The team that lost missed winning forward.
The fight on the bridge, on the boundary of two worlds separated by water, and even at midnight, could signify a duel with the representatives from the other world, who are intent on Malanka, and bestowing Mummers - Taxed donation otherworldly forces for Malanka.
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