One of the theories about an origin of riddles as the folklore genre
specifies on the source of language occurrence in the ancient society
when there were some interdictions and fears for the names of certain
people, beings, events, etc. In societies of all people and times
figurative announcement, «the sermon by riddles» was considered as a
sign of wisdom.
Proverbs and sayings
- short well-aimed statements concern to the invaluable precious
things of the Ukrainian folklore. Proverbs and sayings are the
generalized memory of the people, conclusions, made from the life
experience which give the right to formulate sights at ethics, morals,
history and policy. In general, proverbs and sayings make
the body of rules, which the person should be guided in a daily life.
In general XVI century is considered the beginningof
Ukrainian collection of poetic Cossack Dumes. By the way, the first
record of the Ukrainian national song can be dated by the second half
of the same century (1571 in grammar of Yan Blagoslav). Simultaneously
with those attempts of national versification there was a
new grade of the national song: dumas.
genre "historical song" is known to all Slavic people. It is a
lirical-epic product devoted to certain historical event or known
historical figure. It is necessary to notice, that it is not a chronicle
event, not the document in which facts play an important role; this is
the work of art, therefore creative conjecture is possible in it.
The ballad incurred
essential change in the beginning of its existence (12-13 centuries)
when it was used as a love song, extended in Provence (for the first
time Pon Shapten initiated it). In the French poetry of 14 centuries
the ballad got initial signs, had constant three stanzas, constant
scheme of rhyming, obligatory refrain and applied to the certain
person; experienced blossoming in F.Vion's creativity (1431-1463).
The fairy tale - is
the narration in which make-believe events or persons are mentioned. It
is one of the basic genres of national creativity, epic, mainly
prosaic work of adventurous or household character and oral origin with
the fiction orientation. At the heart of the fairy tale -
the fascinating story about fictional events and appearances, which are
perceived and experienced as real ones.
The most widespread genre of European medieval literature (since
the 6 century), generated in Catholic writing mainly as the life of sacred,
written to the day of its memory, or as the collection of instructive
stories about the life of sacred martyrs, confessors, prelates, Saints,
Desert Fathers, stylets, named «Paterik».
baize has its developed structure long ago (already from prosaic
"parables" of legendary Ancient Greek fabulist Ezop - 6 centuries BC),
traditional circle of images, motives, plots.
The parable - instructive allegorical story, in the plot it is
subordinated to moralizing part of the work. Unlike the polysemy of
fable interpretation, in the parable the certain didactic idea is
parable is widely applied in the Gospel, expressing in the allegorical
form spiritual manuals, as, for example, «Solomon parables» which
after Psalter received the wide spread in the days of Kievan Russia.
«Story about Varlaam and Iosaf» got special popularity and became a
subject of I.Franko scientific studio.
Characteristic trait of traditional Ukrainian clothes is an
extreme picturesqueness which reflects the high level of manufacture,
proficiency in many kinds and furnish technics. Considerable
variability is inherent in national clothes. Distinctions in the
costumes, which occurred on the Left bank and the Right bank, and
Podolia were the most appreciable.
Probably, it is impossible to say not only when there was a "Ukrainian anecdote", but when it appeared as a phenomenon: people are always joking and having a good time, and often it was the only way to counter grief.
So-called “domestic songs” cover many areas of people's lives: the songs that accompany the sowing and harvest, wedding songs, which sang the young boys and girls just for fun in the big companies, lullabies, songs that sang while cooking or livestock rearing.
Как и любая народная песня, обрядовая не имеет авторов. Обычно эти песни имеют языческие корни, растущие со времен Киевской Руси. Древние славяне верили, что все в этом мире имеет душу, а мир населен духами и различными мифическими созданиями. Обрядовая песня была призвана повлиять на духов – задобрить их, чтобы урожай «не побили», или даже, чтобы помогли в каких-то начинаниях или повседневных делах. Эти песни тесно привязаны не только к быту, но и к календарю.