Ukrainian folklore


Riddles One of the theories about an origin of riddles as the folklore genre specifies on the source of language occurrence in the ancient society when there were some interdictions and fears for the names of certain people, beings, events, etc. In societies of all people and times figurative announcement, «the sermon by riddles» was considered as a sign of wisdom.

Proverbs and sayings

Proverbs and sayings Proverbs and sayings - short well-aimed statements concern to the invaluable precious things of the Ukrainian folklore. Proverbs and sayings are the generalized memory of the people, conclusions, made from the life experience which give the right to formulate sights at ethics, morals, history and  policy. In general, proverbs and sayings make the body of rules, which the person should be guided in a daily life.


Dumas In general XVI century is considered the beginningof Ukrainian collection of poetic Cossack Dumes. By the way, the first record of the Ukrainian national song can be dated by the second half of the same century (1571 in grammar of Yan Blagoslav). Simultaneously with those attempts of national  versification there was a new grade of the national song: dumas.

Historical songs

Historical songs The genre "historical song" is known to all Slavic people. It is a lirical-epic product devoted to certain historical event or known historical figure. It is necessary to notice, that it is not a chronicle event, not the document in which facts play an important role; this is the work of art, therefore creative conjecture is possible in it.


Ballads The ballad incurred essential change in the beginning of its existence (12-13 centuries) when it was used as a love song, extended in Provence (for the first time Pon Shapten initiated it). In the French poetry of 14 centuries the ballad got initial signs, had constant three stanzas, constant scheme of rhyming, obligatory refrain and applied to the certain person; experienced blossoming in F.Vion's creativity (1431-1463).


Fairy-tales The fairy tale - is the narration in which make-believe events or persons are mentioned. It is one of the basic genres of national creativity, epic, mainly prosaic work of adventurous or household character and oral origin with the fiction orientation. At the heart of the fairy tale - the fascinating story about fictional events and appearances, which are perceived and experienced as real ones.


Legends The most widespread genre of European medieval literature (since the 6 century), generated in Catholic writing mainly as the life of  sacred, written to the day of its memory, or as the collection of instructive stories about the life of sacred martyrs, confessors, prelates, Saints, Desert Fathers, stylets, named «Paterik».


Baizes The baize has its developed structure long ago (already from prosaic "parables" of legendary Ancient Greek fabulist Ezop - 6 centuries BC), traditional circle of images, motives, plots.


Parables The parable - instructive allegorical story, in the plot it is subordinated to moralizing part of the work. Unlike the polysemy of fable interpretation, in the parable the certain didactic idea is concentrated. The parable is widely applied in the Gospel, expressing in the allegorical form spiritual manuals, as, for example, «Solomon parables» which after Psalter received the wide spread in the days of Kievan Russia. «Story about Varlaam and Iosaf» got special popularity and became a subject of I.Franko scientific studio.

National costume

 National costume Characteristic trait of traditional Ukrainian clothes is an extreme picturesqueness which reflects the high level of manufacture, proficiency in many kinds and furnish technics. Considerable variability is inherent in national clothes. Distinctions in the costumes, which occurred on the Left bank and the Right bank, and Podolia were the most appreciable.

Ukrainian anecdote

Ukrainian anecdote Probably, it is impossible to say not only when there was a "Ukrainian anecdote", but when it appeared as a phenomenon: people are always joking and having a good time, and often it was the only way to counter grief.

Domestic songs

Domestic songs So-called “domestic songs” cover many areas of people's lives: the songs that accompany the sowing and harvest, wedding songs, which sang the young boys and girls just for fun in the big companies, lullabies, songs that sang while cooking or livestock rearing.

Ritual songs

Ritual songs Как и любая народная песня, обрядовая не имеет авторов. Обычно эти песни имеют языческие корни, растущие со времен Киевской Руси. Древние славяне верили, что все в этом мире имеет душу, а мир населен духами и различными мифическими созданиями. Обрядовая песня была призвана повлиять на духов – задобрить их, чтобы урожай «не побили», или даже, чтобы помогли в каких-то начинаниях или повседневных делах. Эти песни тесно привязаны не только к быту, но и к календарю.

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