Ukrainian doctors which changed the world
The first Ukrainian medical doctor and author of the first Ukrainian publication is Yuriy Drogobych (alias of Yuri Kotermark, 1450-1494), a native of Red Rus (Western Ukraine). His book was published in Rome in 1483 under the title "The prognostic assessment of the current» - Iudicium pronosticon Anni M.cccc.lxxxiii. Although he studied medicine at the University of Bologna, where Drogobich became the Ph.D. But his specialty was still astronomy.
However, specific medical advances can boast other Ukrainians. Nikolay Amosov (1913-2002) was a medic and inventor. The peak of his medical achievements is the creation of the first in Ukraine Department of Thoracic Surgery; he also founded the Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery in Kiev. Being the head of the Department of Cybernetics of the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences, he was the founder of the school of Medical and Biological Cybernetics. His work on "social engineering" (planning of social life), and the problems of artificial intelligence have generated a lot of debate in the scientific community. The surgeon also became the first man on Earth, which make a prosthetic appliance of mitral valve (the valve between the left atrium and the right ventricle of the heart). Amosov also invented the so-called "Method of limits and load" - a systematic approach to human health. It is noteworthy that under the leadership of Amosov, one of his disciples Victor Skumin discovered a previously unknown disease. Now it is called "Skumin’s syndrome" (a disorder of the central nervous system of some patients after a prosthetic heart valve).
In the village Tatarovschina (Chernihiv region) born Vladimir Betz (1834-1894). He was one of the first scientists who studied the brain. During his scientific career Betz created about fifty treatises on various topics, but the crowning glory of his career was the description of the giant pyramidal neurons in the primary motor cortex of the brain, these cells now bear his name. He is also the founder of the doctrine of the cytoarchitecture of the brain of animals and the author of a unique technique of making anatomical preparations. He also contributed to the study of human bone growth and to the study of embryogenesis (embryo development before he becomes a fetus). It is noteworthy that the Betz cells were found while the work of Professor in the Kiev Anatomy Theater, built in 1853 and considered one of the best in Europe at the time.
Alexander Bohomoletz (1881-1946) was an expert in the field of pathological physiology and reactivity. He is the author of the book "The continuation of life", which was translated into many languages of the world described the concept of the aging mechanism, developed the doctrine of the connective tissues. His greatest achievement is the doctrine of the interaction between the tumor and the body, which is literally rotated 90 degrees imagination of the scientific community about the growth of tumors. The famous resident of Kiev became the founder of gerontology, endocrinology and pathophysiology of the Soviet Union. He also founded the first in Ukraine and the Russian The Research Institute of medical specialization.
Gregory Minh (1833-1912) was born in the Russian village Gryazi (nowadays the village is the part of the city of the same name), was educated in Moscow, but has gathered practical knowledge and worked in Odessa and Kiev as a professor of pathological anatomy. He proved that two different forms of anthrax (pulmonary and intestinal) have a common origin, and on himself proved that the blood of patients with relapsing fever is contagious. It is Minh who was able to convince the scientific community that leprosy is not a hereditary disease, as doctors believed, and is infectious in nature. Also, it is believed that Gregory Minh in 1892 proved that lice can infect human with typhus. In 1877, he wrote about it in his book "Annals of Surgery". However, the Nobel Prize for the same discovery in 1928 obtained the Frenchman Charles Nicolle.
Vladimir Podvysotsky (1857-1913) was a nobleman from the village Maksimovka, Chernihiv region. After receiving the specialties bacteriologist and pathologist, he organized a medical faculty at the University of Odessa and soon discovered the role of the adrenal glands in the body - they are one of the main filters of the body to protect it from toxic substances. However, his main achievement of scientific research activities is considered the research of tissue regeneration and indirect cell division - mitosis (the term was known as “kariokinesis” and "kariomitosis"). Professor Podvysotsky became one of the pioneers of endocrinology research.
One of the most famous names in Ukrainian medicine is the name of Nicolay Sklifosofskiy (1836-1904). A native of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (probably, the real name was Sclifos), he was educated in Odessa, Moscow and Kharkiv, later becoming the founder of metal osteosynthesis (implantation of metal fasteners in the area of bone fracture). He came up with some radical ways of operations on the gall bladder, thyroid, stomach and bones. One operation on a broken bone is called a "The lock of Sklifosofskiy". Through his introduction of antiseptic and aseptic technique (during military service), the number of deaths among the wounded at the fronts was reduced significantly. Interestingly, in those days the whole of Europe, including Russia, get extremely negative attitude to the antiseptic, but the scientist was able to break the resistance with his authority.
Another prominent physician of the glorious past of Ukrainian medicine is Vladimir Filatov (1875-1956). Born in the village of Mordovia Mihaylovka, he was educated in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk, Russia) and Moscow. He defended his Doctor of Medicine degree in Odessa. Here, in 1936, he founded one of the largest in Europe Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy where he remained director until death. World-renowned ophthalmologist made a number of discoveries that changed the idea of physicians about the person - especially on the structure of the eye. He also developed a range of medical instruments by means of which could do surgery on the eye, but also came up with a number of techniques of reconstructive surgery (such as skin grafting using "floating round the stem of the skin"). Filatov is the author of a new method of treatment - tissue therapy, which is now widely used all over the place, including veterinary use. Widely known through the doctor received a corneal transplant patient from the donor's own methods of treating glaucoma, trachoma and other diseases.
However, contemporary Ukrainian scientists continue to make incredible discoveries that could one iota, but to improve the world. Among the latest inventions are surgical sutures-zippers that victims can impose themselves; bloodless method of blood analysis; a method of quickly determining the cancer from a sample of saliva; candy for the athletes and much, much more.
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