XX century

After declaration of independence the state architecture continues to develop. In 1992 the Ukrainian academy of architecture revived, architecturally-building activity quickened, various architectural competitions were used more widely, active searches of progressive development ways of modern architecture of Ukraine were also conducted. Restoration of cultural heritage monuments began. Language of modern architecture becomes more and more international, pluralistic in creative styles. At the same time the important role is played by searches of new progressive decisions, new forms of ideas expression, new concepts in architecture. Large-scale architectural projects receive the wide circulation. Modern high technologies give uncontrolled freedom in the search of "know-how" in the development of modern architecture. In modern architects creativity it is possible to meet even more often displays of a postmodern and other style searches that is the globalisation display of world architectural process. Thus in the buildings constructed in the given styles, new constructive and art-plastic possibilities as traditional building materials, so  new modern ones, to which light-weight reinforced-plastic construction, refined finishing materials were applied (hotel "Kreschatik", architect L.Filenko; business complex «Vnesheksposervice», the architect O.Donets, and others; office centre «Kyiv - Donbass», the architect V.Zhezherin, and others; hotel-office centre «East horizon», the architect O.Komarovsky; complex "Eximbank", architect I.Shpara and many other modern architectural constructions). In aforesaid objects it is possible to note such lines as various displays of aesthetics, searches of the author's architectural originality, aspiration to consider the existing historical and cultural environment, to solve architecture of the designed buildings in a new way. Though it is necessary to notice, that the rush for all new sometimes leads to blind copying of the western architectural lines of constructions. But nevertheless the majority of architectural constructions carry the displays of national originality, the lines inherent in architecture of the Ukrainian people. Only those architectural works which are high creative achievements of modern architects, become the property of world architectural process. In 20 century in Ukraine on the boundary of centuries there were artists-impressionists who aspired to convey the graceful reproduction of personal impressions and supervisions in their works. The bright representative of this generation is the artist Mykola Burachek, who is known for the pictures of Dnepro and Kyiv. Long years near Kharkiv in the settlement Neskuchnoe Zynaida Serebryakova (1884-1967) lived, whose works are devoted to the Ukrainian village and East themes. She also refers to domestic impressionists. After Serebryakova's emigration she had been living in France and Belgium for many years. The part of foreign period works of the skilled worker were passed to Kyiv.

In the beginning of 20 centuries the painting development in Ukraine after the 1917 revolution passed in the struggle of art sects and styles. Along with those who stood on positions of traditional realism, the supporters of futurism, formalism (for example, Vasily Yermilov Harkovsky's party club) were creating. Except mass propaganda of the fine arts forms, the easel drawing and painting reached considerable progress. In the field of easel drawing  Mikhail Zhuk, Ivan Padalka, Vladimir Zauze worked. In painting  the most known were cloths of Kyriyak Kostandi, Fyodor Krichevsky, Alexander Murashko. Georgiy Narbut issued the first Ukrainian Soviet books and magazines "Arts", "Dawns", «The Work Sun». In the western Ukraine in the first post-revolutionary years Ivan Trush, Anton Monastyrsky, Osyp Kurilas worked. Nikolay Samokish's well-known works on Ukrainian historical theme: «Bogdan Khmelnitsky's entrance to Kyiv 1648» (1929), «Fight under Zhovti Vody», «Boarding of Turkish galley by Zaporizhzhian Cossacks» (1930), «Ivan Bogun's fight under Monastyryshche 1653» (1931), «Fight under Tsarichanka 1709», «Zaporizhzhian Cossacks Campaign to the Crimea» (1934), «Baturin Menshikov's Destruction», «Maxim Krivonos fight with Iyeremiya Vishnevetsky» (1934), «Imperial gendarmes carry Shevchenko in deportation» (1938), etc. The Kyiv art institute (nowadays National academy of fine arts and architecture) became the present centre of the vanguard fine arts. The world famous Kazimir Malevich - the founder of an abstract suprematism in which image consisted of the elementary geometrical figures combination came back at that time. The culture and a life of Ukrainian village, by his own words, made considerable influence on Malevich's creativity, but he went further from the village art. The Ukrainian advance-guard of the beginning of 20 century became a bright page, presented by the artists Alexander Bogomazov, Mikhail Boychuk, Anatoly Petritsky and others. Mikhail Boychuk began a new style  of monumental art of 20 centuries - new Byzantian style, having put in its basis an organic combination of Old Russian icon painting traditions with design features of the Byzantian painting. Unfortunately, many outstanding artists (Mikhail Boychuk , Vasily Sedlyar, Ivan Padalka, etc.) were destroyed by a communistic mode in reprisals days. Ukrainian painting of 60-80 years of 20 centuries, was characterised by negative tendencies of party dictatorship of socialist realism, people's academic style of 19 centuries, propaganda and dogmatism was spread. Besides, according to the the slogan that art should not be clear to the "grass-roots", the ban was actually imposed on creative experiment, search of new forms. At the same time and further such outstanding artists as Alexey Shovkunenko, Tatyana Yablonskaya, Mikhail Deregus, Vasily Kasiyan created. Today the works of Tatyana Jablonskaya, Ivan Marchuk, Feodosiy Gumenyuk, Andrey Chebykin, Alexander Boroday and others are well-known far outside Ukraine.

 

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