ХΙX century

If in the literature and theatre the language defined their national image, in such spheres as the fine arts, architecture, development of national forms  was more problematic. So, on the East Ukrainian lands it was possible to speak about certain Ukrainian-Russian unity in the fine arts. The matter is that within almost XIX century in Russian empire the Academy of arts in Petersburg was the main formation centre. The greatest possibilities for exhibitions and orders were also in the capital of empire. It is possible to result a set of examples of interlacing creativity and destinies of Ukrainian and Russian artists. V.Tropinin remained the serf even being the known artist, many years he lived and worked in Podolsk manor of his benefactors. There was his master's formation, he got acquainted with icon painting tradition in detail. Tropinin said, that Ukraine substituted him the Academy. He wrote the set of portraits («the Girl from Podolia», «the Boy with an axe», «Wedding in the village Kukavka», "Ukrainian", «the Portrait of Podolsk Peasant»), which  democratism and realism were innovative. After liberation Tropinin lived in Moscow. The well-known portrait of A.S.Pushkin is also his work. I.Soshenko who remained after Academy in Petersburg, did not forget Ukraine in his creativity (for example, «The Hay Sale on Dnepro», «the River Ros near Bila  Tserkva», "Boys-fishermen"). In total in the beginning of XIX century in painting the romanticism was the prevailing art style. Many artists of this style were attracted by Ukraine - «new Italy» as it was called.

There were also artists for whom the trips hither were not a tribute to fashion. V.Shternberg  devoted his creativity to the Ukrainian theme. He worked both in portrait, household, and in landscape genres. External circumstances - deportation, prohibition to draw -  prevented Shevchenko to reveal the picturesque talent to the full. As experts consider, in romantic pictures «Country family», "Gipsy-fortuneteller" and others the withdrawal from pure academism is already seen. The "Vessel council" is especially allocated with realism. We should notice, that versatile talent of Т. G.Shevchenko reached the academic heights in the art drawing (series «Picturesque Ukraine», etc.) - in 1860  the rank of the engraving academician of Petersburg academy of arts was appropriated to him. A.Kuindzhi's creativity who was born near Mariupol became innovative. The first picture exposed by him- «The Night on Dnepro» - caused the sensation in Petersburg. The artist possessed a delicate art to convey light, air to the canvas. The main tendency of the fine arts of second half XIX - the movement to realism, which with the greatest power sounded in creativity of members of "Mobile art exhibitions association» members. T.Shevchenko's most well-known pictorial portrait was painted by the creation initiator and ideological head of Itinerants society I.Kramskoy. The idea of truthful reflexion of people's life, the critic of injustice was conformable to the Ukrainian art. Many artists-Itinerants came from Ukraine: N.Litovchenko, N.Yaroshenko. Nikolay Ge drew a magnificent portrait of his friend - historian N.Kostomarov. The theme of the work make closer artist K.Trutovsky ("Bandura player", «Ukrainian fair», «Shevchenko over Dnepro»  with Itinerants. N.Pimonenko was outstanding master of genre art. The majority of his works were drawn on the themes of country life, they differ by generosity, emotionality, high picturesque skill: «Christmasstime fortunetelling», «Wedding in the Kyiv province», «Recruits farewell», "Matchmakers", "Harvest", «Going for water», "Fair" and others. N.Pimonenko  - is the author of  715 pictures and drawings. He was one of the first in domestic painting who connected a genre art and poetic Ukrainian landscape. However his relations with the Ukrainian national intelligency were uneasy. He was blamed for the absence of accurate national program, sometimes the master who based  an art school in Kyiv was very roughly criticised.
The combination of art with the realised national ideology for the first time occuredin S.I.Vasilkovsky's creativity. As the graduate of Petersburg Academy, he returned from a long foreign trip, possessing a fine professional level. He completely gave all his skill to Ukraine: he drew landscapes of Podneprovye, Podolia, Slobozhanshchina, architectural monuments, genre pictures, historical cloths (in particular «Cossacks in steppes», «Cossack paddock», T.Shevchenko's portrait). In architecture in XIX centuries splendour and relaxedness of the Ukrainian baroque was changed by reserved, academic style of classicism. Special commissions and committees cities observed construction of the city. Public constructions were built taking into account their appointment - the main architector's goal was not creation of external appeal, but  internal comfort (the high ceiling, ventilation, illumination). Now new cities in the south of Ukraine and in Crimea - Mariupol, Aleksandrovsk (Zaporizhzhya), Ekaterinoslav (Dnepropetrovsk), Mykolaiv, Odesa are actively built up. In Odesa under the project of Petersburg architect Tom de Tamon in 1809 the opera theatre was constructed. Simultaneously there was a reconstruction of the old cities of Slobozhanshchina and Podneprovye. Architectural style of Kyiv was defined by the well-known architect A.Melensky. The monument in honor of Magdebourg right return to Kiev, the church on Askoldovaya tomb, Kontraktovaya square on Podol which had suffered from fire in 1812 were under his project. In 1837-1843 under V.Beretti's project the building of Kyiv university was constructed. Such cities, as Kharkiv, Poltava are ordered. In second half XIX centuries the style unity of classicism collapsed. A difficult epoch of capitalism statementit was reflected in architecture: there are the new materials, new customers. There is a direction, which received the name "eclecticism" (mixing). On Kyiv facades of that time it was possible to see the gothic, Renaissance, and Romance style, there were a lot of buildings in «brick style» (the main ornament - unplastered bricklaying). The search of increasing variety caused an interest to Byzantium-Russian traditions. They are accurately traced in the structure of the largest Vladimir cathedral in Kyiv, which was under construction more than 20 years ago (1862-1886) under the projects of I.Shtrom, P.Sparro, A.Beretti. Participation of V.Vasnetsov, M.Vrubel in cathedral painting made it an outstanding phenomenon in the monumental fine arts. The building project of Poltava country council of the architect V.Krichevsky accepted in 1903 is considered the first project in own Ukrainian style.

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