ХV - XVI centuries

In Ukraine the building of defensive works - castles, fortresses, shaft round cities and villages for protection against attacks of Turkish armies and Crimean-Tatar hordes got the wide scope. Local magnates used the castles for personal safety and serfs retention in obedience. Cossacks showed a lot of ingenuity at strengthenings construction of Zaporizhizhian Host, which for some centuries remained as a military outpost in the south and very often perceived the blows of the Tatar hordes from the Crimean khanate, which bordered with Zaporizhzhian earths. Zaporizhzhian Cossacks used the place for construction of the Host strengthenings (rivers and bogs), dug ditches, filled shaft over which wooden towers with guns towered. Zaporizhzhian Host was unapproachable for enemies on the island Chertomlyk or Bazavluk on Dnepro (near the modern city Nikopol in Dnepropetrovsk region). Already mentioned fortress Kodak (1635) was constructed under the project of French engineer Guillaume Boplana over Dnepro on the right high coast of the river. From the land the fortress was enclosed by the deep ditch, in which bottom the pointed oak piles, and the earthen shaft in 1800 m length with bastions in 4 corners were punched in. By then the fortress was considered as the first class work of fortification art. The Ukrainian architects constructed churches of stone, monastic buildings, houses forrich people, city top and foremen. They united original style with the best achievements of Renaissance. In Lviv on the national basis and in accordance with the Renaissance style the building of the known brotherhood figure Konstantin Kornyakt (1580) and Uspensky church (1598-1630), in Kyiv - Artemih's house (the beginning of XVII century) on Podol were constructed. Named constructions decorated the area of the Market in Lviv and Podol centre in Kyiv.A number of architectural ensembles were restored in Kyiv after Mongol-Tatars invasion (the Pechersky monastery, the Sofia cathedral, Kirillovsky monastery, etc.). The Polish and Ukrainian magnates built the stone palaces. Churches and palaces were decorated with woodcarving, wall painting, stone and wooden sculptures. The iconostasises of many churches made by national handyman, were the real masterpieces of art. The Ukrainian masters achieved the great successes in moulding from copper and tin and art metals processing. Bells, guns, sabres, lanterns, bowls, candlesticks were decoratively made out. Incrustation (furnish) by gold, silver, jewels etc. was widely used. Handymen showed the uncommon skill in subjects of daily use decorating: ware, clothes, saddles, harness for horses, carts, sledge, boats.

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