History of Vinnitsa
Long since there lived eastern-slavic Ulichi and Tivertsi tribes, which in due time were included into the structure of Kievan Rus, and after its disintegration the lands of Pobuzh'ya became a part of the Galitsko-Volynsk princedom. In the period of tataro-mongolian invasion Galitsko-Volynsk Prince Danilo Romanovich, not having support of the western neighbors, was compelled to recognize dependence on Golden Horde which from the middle of ХIII century was dominating there for more than hundred years.
In 1362, the lands of eastern Slavs passed under the reign of Lithuanian prince Olgerd after his victory over Tatars. Territory of Pobuzh'e passed to board of Prince Feodor and Konstantin's nephews who started to build fortress on those lands. Among them there was also Vinnitsa which chronicle began since 1363 and which connected with aspiration of the Great Lithuanian princedom to confirm the sovereignty on Podol'e.
The history of Vinnitsa is inalienable with history of Ukrainian people who struggled for the right to remain owners of their land throughout all life. Hardly was to our ancestors during the times of internecine wars in the most Lithuanian princedom, and Tatars did not give rest: from 1400 until 1569, Vinnitsa went through 30 devastating attacks of Tatars. Also in these difficult conditions, city developed as the economic and cultural centre. Trading path from Moldova to Moscow also promoted to fast growth of economic value of the city. In days of Ivan III, active commercial relations were tied between two states. The chronicle mentioned vinnichany- handicraftsmen, students of Krakov University.
In 1545, in Vinnitsa there were 273 houses, and in seven years - 429. In 1558 after the construction of new fortress on island Kempa there appeared a «New city» on the right bank of Yuzhny Bug, the «Old city» on the left bank continued to develop.
According to Lublin Union Vinnitsa became a part of Poland and since 1598 it was the centre of Bratslavsky voivodship. In 1580, 1593 and in 1634 the city was given privileges of duty-free trade in all territory of Polish-Lithuanian state, and in 1640 the Magdebursky right was confirmed. All this testifies to appreciable role of Vinnitsa in the economic life of edge.
During these years essential processes proceeded in the spiritual life of Vinnitsa inhabitants. Catholics finished construction of two monasteries in 1617 and 1624; in 1642, they opened Jesuit collegiums.
Among orthodox believers the popularity of Vinnitsa brotherhood of Kuzma and Damian increased, which supported the Ukrainian brotherly school from the last quarter of XVI century.
Thanks to efforts of famous cultural figures as Petro Mogila and Mikhail Kropivnitskiy in 1632 the orthodox collegium opened.
Defeat of the Polish army in March 1651 by forces of Cossack regiments under the guidance of glorified Ivan Bogun was an outstanding event of that century in city history. In 1643 and 1653, Bogdan Khmelnitskiy visited Vinnitsa.
After joining of right-bank Ukraine to Russia and Podolsk province forming in 1797 the city became the centre of Vinnitsa povet, and in the beginning of 1798, «City regulation» was put in there while on all territory of Russia it was put in only after 1801. From that moment, considerable expansion of the city was marked, and in 1860, it counted 10 thousand inhabitants, 5 schools, 1 hospital, and 190 small shops. The theatre also worked there.
Building of Kievo-Baltskaya railway and opening of Kozyatin-Zdolbunov railway communication thanks to what direct connections with Kiev, Odessa, Moscow, Petersburg, and with Poland were possible became the important stimulus of further city development.
For second half of XIX century Vinnitsa grew almost in three and a half times and won the first place on amounts of goods turnover in Podolsk province.
To the beginning of XX century, the city considerably changed. In 1911, the first turn of water pipe was constructed and it was set the electric lighting. In 1912, tram communication of Zamost'e with city centre was opened; building of superphosphate factory was also finished.
Stormy events amazed the city throughout 1917-1918. Revolutionary committees of working people and soldiers' deputies, proteges of Austro-Hungarian armies and Denikin army, alternately kept the power.
In hotel "Savoy" in the city centre the government of Ukrainian National Republic temporarily stayed.
In 1923 the city became the district centre, and since 1932 and up to the present moment - an administrative centre of the created Vinnitsa region.
Huge losses were put to the city by German invaders who established in Vinnitsa a special mode in review of placing nearby headquarters "Verwolf".
During the war of 1941-1945 the quantity of inhabitants reduced from 100 to 27 thousand, from 50 industrial enterprises only 10 was undamaged, 1880 apartment houses were completely destroyed.
Thanks to heroic efforts of Vinnitsa inhabitants and messengers of other regions of the country by the end of 1948, the city industry was almost completely restored, and the next years in the regional centre electronic, radio engineering, metal cutting and other branches were powerfully developing.
Vinnitsa associates with famous people: Maksim Krivonos, Ivan Bogun, surgeon N. Pirogov, writer M. Kotsubinskiy, composer M. Leontovich, cosmonaut G. Beregovoy and artist N. Altman.
State medical, technical, pedagogical and agrarian universities operate in Vinnitsa. The scientific potential of the city is supplemented with 5 institutes, 10 special colleges, 9 scientific research institutes.
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