History of Ternopil
On this territory the traces of primitive people encampments are found since Х thousand BC.
If to speak actually about the city, its history should begin with Old Russian strengthening which was named Sopilche (Topilche), and in 1240-1241 Batuy destroyed it during winter campaign to Carpathians. After a while the city revived, and since 1349, as well as all Western Ukraine, got under the power of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The period of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
For the first time the city was mentioned in annals of ХIV century when Polish king Sigismund I gave out to Krakow castellan, great coronal hetman Yan Amor Tarnovsky a document on creation of the city and on possession of the neighboring land. The city was founded in 1540.
On behalf of the hetman, there was a first name of the city - Ternopil. On the bank of the river Seret the castle was erected in where in the centre the big square was located.
The meetings, fairs were held there, and decrees were disclosed. In XV-XVI centuries, the city was protected by the high walls, which were laid out from the big boulders. The castle should protect southwest borders of kingdom from attacks of Tatars and Turk that nevertheless in 1544-1698 fourteen times devastated the city, killed or took away inhabitants in its captivity.
In 1548, the city acquired the Magdebourg right, according which Ternopil was given some privileges: inhabitants were released from taxes for 15 years, and allocated with the right to arrange three fairs and annual auctions in year, and to have warehouses for foreign merchants.
At church parish, Ternopil petty bourgeoisies created a brotherhood, to which in 1570 the city proprietor Prince V.Ostrozhsky allocated the land, and means for the maintenance of school and hospital for aged and sick people. The brotherhood within several centuries expanded its activity and influence on various layers of Ukrainians, helped them to save up belief, ceremonies, customs, national originality, churches; schools and libraries were also building...
In 1648 through Ternopil a liberation way of Bohdan Khmelnitsky's Cossacks in its struggle against Polish szlyachta passed. In 1651 and 1655 local residents not only joined his groups, but also independently acted on protection of their rights, defended their belief and culture. The considerable part of townsmen ran on Zaporozhian Host and joined Cossacks until the All-Ukraine revolt. Ternopil citizens also helped Cossacks in 1648 during liberation campaign of Bohdan Khmelnitsky's to Lviv.
In 1772, after the first division of Poland, Ternopil passed under the power of Austria. The new power promoted to economic development and awakening of Ukrainian national life. In second half of ХІХ century six highways were laid to Ternopil, in 1870 the railway Lviv - Ternopil was constructed. Two banks, 5 private mills and 3 grits cutters started to work in the city, shoe, tailor's, forge, joiner's and other shops extended. It affected increase in population. If in 1808 in Ternopil lived 7093 men, at the end of the century there were over 30 thousand men. In 1820, the grammar school opened.
In 1844, the city became a free royal city. During the period of "people spring" in 1848, "Russakaya Rada" was created in Ternopil as a branch of «Glavnaya Russkaya Rada» in Lviv. In 1870, the railway appeared Ternopil. In September 1875, Ternopil "Prosvita" was created. Since 1898, Ukrainian grammar school started to operate.
Under the influence of revolutionary events of 1848, the intelligence of Ternopil began the struggle for spiritual and national self-determination. Known political figure Aleksander Barvinsky in 1876 opened the branch "Prosvita" where books on history of Ukraine started to be published, there was also the library and a bookstore for Ukrainian people, concerts and ethnographic exhibitions were organized. In 1898, Ukrainian grammar school was opened.
In beginning of ХХ century in Ternopil cultural and educational, sports societies "Sich", "Plast", "Sokil" started to be created.
The First World War
With beginning of First World War in administrative-territorial division of Ternopil region essential changes had occurred. In August 1914 armies of Russia occupied East Galicia and part of Bukovyna. The military general governorship of Galicia which included Lviv, Peremyshl', Ternopil and Chernovtsy provinces was created. The administrative power belonged to the governor and chiefs of district managements. All administration was created from military men and officials, who came from Russian provinces.
Since November 1918, Ukrainian power affirmed in Ternopil. Professor S. Sidoryak became the city commissioner. P.Karmansky and A.Kunko were selected as delegates of WUNR parliament. From November 23 until December 31, 1918 the city was temporary the capital of republic: government of WUNR led by K.Levitskiy (from the middle of December S.Golubovich fulfilled duties of the head of the government) stayed in Ternopil.
On January 22, 1919 in Kiev «Act of Zluka», which proclaimed unification of two Ukrainian states in one independent cathedral Ukrainian National Republic (UNR) was accepted.
In the beginning of July 1919 owing to approach of Polish army, the territory of WUNR was limited to a small part of southern Ternopil region between Zbruch, Dnestr and the line of cities Zaleshchiki-Gusyatin. On July 17-18th, 1919, receding under the impact of the opponent, UGA and management of WUNR passed Zbruch and entered the great Ukraine. WUNR ceased to exist as the state, though its government continued to operate in emigration until July 23, 1923.
In July 1919, the city passed under the power of Poland and Ternopil stayed as a part of the state until September 1939. In 1922, Ternopil became the centre of newly made homonymous voivodship of Poland. The Polish power conducted a rigid colonial policy in all spheres of edge life, first - in an ethnic question. Ukrainians were limited in the rights, rigidly pursued for the slightest displays of national advantage. But petty bourgeoisies of Ternopil started to renew the work of societies "Lug", "Sokol", "Prosvita", "Rodnaya shkola", "Plast", sports club "Podolia" and to defend the social and national rights. Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (ОUN) renewed its activity. The youth nationalist centre in Ternopil, Ukrainian grammar school headed by Roman Paladiychuk and future leader of OUN Yaroslav Stetsko, were especially actively operating.
On September 17, 1939, armies of Red army occupied the city, and on December 4, the same year Ternopil became the regional centre as a part of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Temporary voivodship, district and city managements, in villages - rural committees that conducted a policy of the Soviet power were created. On October 27, 1939, the National Meeting of the Western Ukraine made the decision on inclusion of the Western Ukraine in the structure of USSR.
Since November 1 1939, the existing of administrative-territorial device was established in USSR, and 6 areas, among them - Ternopil with the centre in Ternopil were created.
At July 1941 after the beginning of Germany-Soviet war German-nazi aggressors occupied Ternopil region. The territory of former Ternopil voivodship was attached on August 1, 1941 to the district "Galichina" of the general province of Germany. Hitlerites attached the territory of Kremenetsk district of Volynsk voivodship to the general district «Volhynia and Podolia» of Reichscommissariat "Ukraine", created on August, 20th, 1941. On the occupied lands, German military authorities executed administrative functions.
The Soviet period (2)
In July 1944, Red army completely released the territory of Ternopil area from German-nazi armies, administrative-territorial division of the pre-war period renewed. Because Ternopil was destroyed, regional governing bodies until August 1946 stayed in Zbarzha, and then in Tchertkov.
In the 50-th years of XX century there was a scale updating of Ternopil city territory. The new dam with higher water level and bigger area (Komsomol lake) was under construction. So-called Sabattarians on an accomplishment of the territory around lake were held. The park of Shevchenko, stretched along east coast of a reservoir was founded. The Old Castle had been restored, where later the sports palace was located. The quay along park was structured in neoclassical style.
In 60-th years near the Old Castle the central landing stage was constructed, nearby there was the hotel "Ternopil". On slopes of Kutkovetskaya Mountain, the forest park was founded.
Now Ternopil - is the centre of Ternopil region as a part of Ukraine, the economic and spiritual centre of the western region of Ukraine. The railway and highways of Ternopil connects it with the Western Europe. For last decades the infrastructure develops, the present shape of the city gets new lines, while the industrial sphere is reconstructed. The enterprises of Ternopil make the lighting and radio engineering equipment, beet combines, building materials, furniture, china, an artificial skin, fabrics, confectionery products, and the light industry goods.
Modern Ternopil - is a student's city. Here the qualified experts are prepared by universities, academies, number of institutes, schools, secondary and specialized secondary educational institutions. There appeared lyceums and colleges.
Two theatres, philharmonic hall, museum of regional studies and art, picture gallery, culture center, parks, libraries, and a singing field are situated and working in Ternopil. The best creative power unites the regional organizations of National unions of writers, artists, journalists and architects of Ukraine.
In modern Ternopil, as for 01.06.2005 - 235 thousand of inhabitants were counted; the majority of them are Ukrainians. Here also live Russian, Poles, Germans, representatives of almost 100 nationalities.
Ornament of Ternopil is the Theatrical Square and parkway of Shevchenko. There on April 29 in 1990 Ukrainian national flag was lifted and consecrated for the first time in our state. Populous meetings, meetings that are held by democratic parties and public organizations take place in this square. People bring flowers to the monument of T.Shevchenko, erected in park near the square.
On P.Sagaydachny Street, the monument to Ivan Franko, which is naturally combined with a city architectural ensemble, was consecrated on May 28, 1995.
Performance of coryphaeuses of the Ukrainian theatre of M.Kropivnitsky, M.Zankovetsky, M.Sadovsky, composer M.Lisenko, world famous Salomeya Krushelnitskaya were memorable events in the city life. In days of the First World War director Les Kurbas organized well-known "Ternopil theatrical evenings". At various times in our city were P.Kulesh, I.Franko, V.Stefanyk, Les Martovych, V.Gnatyuk, O.Dovzhenko, I.Bagryany, P.Tychina, M.Rylsky, M.Bazhan, A.Malyshko, O.Gonchar.
In Ternopil works dramatic theatre of T.Shevchenko, puppet theatre, philharmonic hall, museum of regional studies and art of Ternopil region , culture centers, cinemas, libraries, and Singing field. The best creative power unites the regional organizations of the Unions of writers, artists, journalists, architects of Ukraine.
Under the editorship of: V.A. Kovalenin
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