History of Simferopol

Simferopol city is an administrative, economic, scientific and cultural centre of Autonomous republic of Crimea. The city population - is over 400 thousand people.

In the eastern part of the city archeologists found out encampment of primitive hunters in cave Chokurcha, which age is approximately 35 - 45 thousand years.

In later time, tribes of cattlemen and farmers lived there. The rests of Tavr settlements, which appeared in vicinities of the city since IX century B.C., were saved. The small Scythian settlement arisen on a plateau of Petrovsky rocks in IV century B.C., one century later, it became the capital of Malaya Skifia state, which was formed after disintegration of the tripartite alliance of Scythian tribes.

The city is located in a southeast part of present Simferopol, near the trading way, connecting steppe with southern coast, and within II century BC - IV century AD it was extending and growing rich. Scythians constantly waged wars with the Greek population of peninsula. It is known, that armies of commander Diofant plundered and burnt the city. Therefore, powerful walls with towers protected the capital. Perfect stone houses, the temples painted with frescos were built for the tsar and its confidants; however, poor people huddled in hovels or dugouts. In Greek written sources the name Neopolis, that means «a new city» was saved, in the modern literature it is known as Naples Scythian, which had subsequently undergone to devastating attacks of nomads: goths, alany, gunny, and was completely destroyed.

The next centuries new conquerors: Khazars, Pincenates, Cuman, Mongol-Tatars came on northern Black Sea Coast and flat Crimea repeatedly.

In the end of XIII century, one thousand years later, after destruction of last capital of the Scythian state, Tatars came to Crimea and forever lodged in fertile Crimean steppe. In two hundred years there was an Ak-mosque ("White mosque") - an important administrative centre (331 houses and 7 mosques) in which there was a residence kalg-sultan, the second person after the Crimean khan. The Ak-mosque developed as a city of handicraftsmen and trading people both in XVII, and in XVIII centuries represented a labyrinth of confused, curve small streets with set of coffee houses, benches, workshops, markets, hotels, fountains. The life in the city raged.

In the end of XIII century, through one thousand years after destruction of last capital of Scythian state, Tatars came to Crimea and forever lodged in fertile Crimean steppe.

In the end of XIII century, through one thousand years after destruction of last capital of Scythian state, Tatars came to Crimea and forever lodged in fertile Crimean steppe. In two hundred years there was an Ak-mosque ("the White mosque") - the important administrative centre (331 house and 7 mosques) in which there was a residence of kalg-sultan, the second person after the Crimean khan. The Ak-mosque developed as a city of handicraftsmen and trading people both in XVII, and in XVIII centuries it represented a labyrinth of confused, curve small streets with set of coffee houses, benches, workshops, markets, hotels, fountains. The life in the city raged.

The third year of Russian-Turkish war when Russian armies directed to Crimea, became a turning-point for the Ak-mosque life. Aspiring to receive an exit to Black sea, in 1768-1774, Russia waged war with Turkey and the Crimean khanate. In 1771, at the height of Russian-Turkish war, Russian army under the command of general V.Dolgorukiy (1722-1782) became the camp on the left coast of Salgir, on the place of modern Simferopol; having won, Russian government in 1777 enters into Ak-mosque the army under the command of A.Suvorov. In short term soldiers on abrupt cape over Salgir constructed the redoubt, which became the first construction of future city and named Aleksandrovskiy in honour of glorified commander.

In February, 1784 Catherine II signed the Decree about forming of Taurian area in the territory of Crimean and Tamansky peninsulas, which were a part of Novorossiysk province. Some days later after that Decree, Novorossiysk governor general Grigory Potyomkin submited to the Empress the project of the administrative device of the area, which center the new city should become. Day of signing by Catherine II of the decree «About the administrative device of Taurian area» is considered as date of the foundation of modern Crimean capital.

On June, 28th, 1784, G.Potyomkin directed to the first governor of Taurian area and Simferopol builder Vasiliy Kohovskiy the warrant; in which he instructed: «I'm relegating to you to examine and to give orders, whence to carry a stone for the structure at the Ak-mosque of the provincial city». Since May, 1785, the provincial city under the offer of the first archbishop of Taurian area Evgeniy Bulgarisa started to be officially called as Simferopol: "This name means an advantage city, that is why the arms - a beehive with the bees, having above the inscription: "Useful" (from the Greek words «simfero» - gather and "polis" - city, i.e. the city connecting various nationalities in one).

Date of the basis of Simferopol is considered February, 8th, 1784. The first structures were founded in June, 1784. At that time Russian and Ukrainians, who dismissed from Russian army, soldiers and serfs. who were taken out by landowners move there. In March, 1830 the name of 23 main streets and 4 lanes was confirmed.

The city expanded, there were temples, grammar schools, and Nobility Assembly, in 1820 opposite to the governor's house the park was based (nowadays the Central recreation park). At the initiative of Moscow merchant, the theatre was founded. In 1846 on the Simferopol scene in performance "Auditor" in the role of town governor M.Schepkin acted, later there played M.Kropivnitsky, N.Sadovsky, M. Zankovetskaya, P.Strepetova, O.Knipper-Chehova, P.Orlenev.

In the city the industry roughly developed, and in 1867 in Simferopol there were already 11 plants and factories, the new one continued to appear. In 1871, building of Lozovo-Sevastopol railway began, and on October, 14th, 1874 the first passenger train came to Simferopol. From that time large industrial enterprises started to appear in the city: branch of Moscow candy factory "Inem", factory of A.Abrikosova, their production were fruit canned food, jams, jelly, it was well that materials: berries and fruit were enough, because Simferopol was surrounded with orchards. Later tobacco factories and in 1926 aviation factory "Anatra" appeared.

Simferopol in the beginning of XX century was insignificant, but was developed enough. Road building of the highway to Alushta, and then to Yalta promoted to its development. The capital Taurida received an exit on the All-Russia market and became large craft and especially province shopping centre. To the beginning of XX century in Simferopol there were about two hundred streets and lanes.

The beginning of 20 centuries was marked by lifting of revolutionary movement in Russia. In Simferopol the first social democratic mugs, and later - Council of working deputies appeared. Activity of local Bolsheviks passed under the management and with assistance of Central Committee RSDRP. The central committee sent to Crimea professional Bolsheviks: Miller, Ostrovskaya, Gaven, Pozharov. Their names are immortalised in names of Simferopol streets.

During civil war replacing each other Bolshevist and white governments settled down in Simferopol. Definitively Soviet power established on November, 13th, 1920. Since October, 18th 1921 Simferopol - was the capital of Crimean ASSR.
For twenty peace years city changed: new factories,plants, schools, medical institutions, residential areas were constructed, streets equipped with modern conveniences, but at the same time in the city the considerable quantity of buildings which represented the big historical and cultural value were destroyed.

In days of civil war in Simferopol there were the largest scientist of Russia: academicians Vernadsky, Andrusov, Obruchev, Palladin, Baykov, Ioffe and others. They became founders of the Taurichesky university based in 1918. Now the Taurian national university carries the name of academician Vernadsky.

In days of five-years periods the city was actively under construction and for premilitary years Simferopol became the large industrial centre. The factories were opened there: on skin manufacture and tailoring of footwear, mechanical engineering, a cannery of 1-st of May, were thoroughly reconstructed and converted. The city streets were decorated with new buildings, greens of parks and squares. Simferopol became an administrative, cultural and a scientific centre of Crimea.

On the eve of the Second World War Simferopol made more than third of industrial output of Crimea.
The begun Second World War caused huge damage to the city. In Simferopol the 5-st army,which became famous in fights for Crimea, the guerrilla groups which were at war in woods, the underground organisations were generated. Many Simferopol citizens were lost in days of Hitlerite occupation, simple townspeople were shot in Kurtsovsky beam, in Oaklets on Nikolaev highway, in state farm "Krasniy". One hundred and twenty six enterprises, 132 big apartment houses were destroyed or hurt. The equipment of plants and factories was taken out to Germany.

On April, 13-th, 1944 Simferopol was released from fascists.

In post-war years the city was actively under construction and shortly became an industrial centre of Crimea. It was necessary for Simferopol citizens to work hard in order to revive the city from ruins, and to make it well-arranged.
After war Crimea lost the autonomous republic status, and on April, 26th, 1954 by the decree of Supreme body of the USSR it was deduced from structure of RSFSR and passed to Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Passions round this event do not cease until now.

In XXI century Simferopol was an Autonomous republic of Crimea (ARC), as a part Ukraine.

Present Simferopol harmoniously combines the present and provincial spirit of provincial city. The ancient buildings adjoining to high-rise houses, draw the eye. Russian Theatre - is pride of Simferopol. Now it is unique in Europe, having seven scenic platforms. The theatre history began in 30-th years of XIX century, when enterprising Moscow merchant Volkov adapted stables of of Nobility Assembly under the theatrical scene, orchestra, loge. An outstanding Russian actor, a mega-star to present measures - Michael Schepkin was played on the "theatre-stable". Later brilliant actors of that time Savin, Strepetov, Gorev, Ornelev, brothers Adelgaim were played on updated scene of the Noble theatre.

The city is the important industrial centre of Ukraine. The basic industrial branches are the machine-building branch, the food-processing industry and light industry. As a whole seventy large enterprises are located in Simferopol. They are: factory "Photon" where TV sets are made, factory "Pneumatika", "Krymprodmash", factory "Santekhprom", factory "Phiolent" which lets out home appliances, electromachine-building factory "Selma", sewing and factory of leather products, "Efirmaslo" etc. Besides, in the city 2 canneries, confectionery factory, factories of household chemical goods and plastic, macaroni factory functions.

In Simferopol there are four Higher educational establishments, known far outside of Ukraine. These are Taurian national university of Vernadsky, Crimean medical university of Georgievsky, Agricultural academy and the Crimean academy of nature protection and resort building. In Simferopol there are four museums - Crimean museum of Regional Studies, Ethnographic, Art and Museum of Crimeam Tatar arts, in which funds there are unique exhibits; three national theatres - Russian, Ukrainian and Crimeam Tatar; puppet theatre- is the repeated prize-winner of international festivals.
Now Simferopol is the large administrative and cultural centre of Crimea.

Simferopol international airport accepts and serves air vessels of all classes, makes reception and service of international transportations of cargoes and passengers from the different countries of the world at high professional level. The airport has two runways without restriction of landing weight of air vessels. Air vessels of more than 40 airlines from the CIS countries, Germany, Israel, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey and other countries of the world are regularly served.
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