History of Rivne

The Rivne city is located on the river Ust'e beyond some kilometers from its confluence in the river Goryn', which conditionally divides Rivne region on low (northern) and interfluvely-high (southern) parts. According to Primary Chronicle, there lived volinyane - representatives of one of the most ancient Ukrainian tribes, who occupied the territory from Goryn' to Zapadny Bug.

Archeological finds testify that on this territory people lived in days of copper century (IV-III centuries BC) and early bronze (the beginning of II century BC). Tribes of farmers and cattlemen lived there. The Roman finds: a board, figurines of I-II centuries proved, that the local population had commercial relations with the Roman provinces.

The first known written mention about Rivne as one of the settlements of Galitsko-Volynsk princedom is dated 1283.

This is record in Latin, made in Polish chronicle "Рочник капитульны краковски". However last excavation can transform Rivne into an ancient Ukrainian city. As local archeologists state, Rivne is older on 250 years. During last researches, local scientists founded buildings, ceramic ware, the rests of weapon and buildings, dating 10-th century. Those finds as archeologists assure, are capable to turn and enrich the history of Rivne.

The city regularly began to appear in historical sources since XV century.

Since second half of XIV century, it was under the power of the Lithuanian princes. In 1492 during the board of Polish king and grand duke Kazimir Yagellona the city acquired Magdebourg right. From 1518 to 1621, it was in the property of princes Ostrozhsky. From 1569 Rivne passed from Lithuania to Poland.

In 1667 because of Andrusovsky agreement Rivne remained under the power of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The same year there was plague epidemic in the city and in 1691, the strong fire devastated it.

The most ancient architectural monument of Rivne refers to XV century. It is the castle of Lybomirsky princes (the surname of last owners). In 1461, Volynsk prince S. Nesvitsky, the representative of Russian-Lithuanian dynasty of Gediminovichi bought Rivne. After his death in 1479, the prince widow named herself M.Rovenskaya. She constructed the castle on one of the river islands and soon achieved the Magdebourg right for her manor. During XVI-XVII centuries, passing from hand to hand, the castle was reconstructed. Some kins by turns reigned in it, they were Ostrozhsky, Zamoisky, Konetspolsky, Valevsky, and since 1723 - Lyubomirsky, who restored the castle, having transformed it in a magnificent palace, which more than two centuries was their residence.

In 1706 during the Russian-Swedish war armies of Karl XII occupied the city.

In the middle of XVIII century, S.Lyubomirsky was considered the richest person in Poland and even struggled for a royal crown with S. Ponyatovsky. Who knows, how there would be a modern map of the Central Europe, if he didn't lose it the struggle with Stanislav-August, at whom Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was divided between Austria, Prussia and Russia. Since 1793 Rivne became a district city of Volynsk vicarious authority, and since 1797 - vicarious authority of province.

In 1837 near Lyubomirsky palace, the building of the gymnasia bulk began. In 1844-1845 in Rivne grammar school an outstanding Ukrainian historian, writer and political figure Nikolay Kostomarov worked, and in 1866-1871, the writer-humanist Vladimir Korolenko studied.

In 1857 the highway Kiev-Brest, and in 1873 the railway between those cities lied through the city. In 1906, there was the first museum in the city, and in 1912, the first power station was put into operation.

During I world Rivne for a long time was a front city. In 1916 before approach of Russian army emperor, Nikolay II and general A.Brusilov had visited it.

During the period from 1917 to 1920, the city serially stayed under the power of German-Austrian, Polish and Bolshevist's occupational armies. In April-May 1919, the government of Ukrainian National Republic temporarily stayed in Rivne and armies of the Directory, headed by S.Petlyura were placed in Rivne.

On September 19, 1920, Polish armies occupied Rivne, until September 1939 it was a part of Polish state as the district centre of Volynsk voivodoship. Contrary to reprisals from Polish authorities Ukrainian cultural life preceded in the city, public organizations of national-patriotic sense - "Prosvita" (till 1929), "Plast", the Union of Ukrainians, etc., and also illegal organizations OUN and CPZU actively worked there.

In September 1939 under Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, lands of western Ukraine passed to USSR. The same year Rivne became the regional centre of newly made Rivne region in the structure of USSR.

In days of fascist occupation, the city became original capital of occupied Ukrainian lands. Since September 1941 "Reichscommissariat of Ukraine" and residence of gaulyaiter was placed there. During the same time, Ukrainian public and illegal organizations revived in the city, and Rivne became one of the centers of Ukrainian nationally-liberation movement. In parallel, there were some Soviet underground organizations.

In February 1944, the city was released from fascists. Right after it mass reprisals against participants of nationally-liberation movement, first against soldiers of UPA began. The power organized a massive migration in the city of administrative cadres from other areas of Ukraine.

In 1950, restoration of the economy destroyed by war was finished. The next decades became the period of intensive growth and city development. New inhabited quarters in city centre were under construction, there were new microdistricts. The new powerful enterprises were created, such as the giant of light industry of Ukraine flax processing factory, chemical enterprise "Azot", etc. New establishments of education, science and culture also opened

Under the editorship of: V.A. Kovalenin

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