History of Poltava

Poltava municipal arms Poltava - is a city on the left coast of the river Vorskla, the left inflow of Dnepro. In VII-XIII centuries AD in that territory slavic tribes of northerners and glades lived.

The first mention about strengthened settlement Ltava on that place, carried by 1174, we find in Ipatevsky list of Primary Chronicle. Moreover, 800 years later the city anniversary was solemnly celebrated. However, the subsequent large-scale archeological excavations and researches of Poltava historical centre gave the basis to celebrate in 1999 official 1100 year-old age of the city.
During an epoch of the Tartar-Mongol Yoke many settlements of average Podneprov'e were destroyed, including Ltava, as long time there were no mentions about it. Only in 1430, the city was mentioned under the name of Poltava. By that time territory of Poltava area was the part of the Great Lithuanian princedom. After Lublin union in 1569 it passed to the Polish feudal lords. In 1641 in a written source, Poltava was named as a city. The same time crafts were developing there and the local government, so-called Magdebursk right, was established. In addition, when the city was captured by Ukrainian Catholic magnate Yarema Vishnevetsky, already 812 household were registered there.

In the beginning of Liberation war in May-June 1648 peasant-Cossack groups of Poltava area under the guidance of Bohdan Khmelnitsky released Pereyaslav and Lubni from polish-szlyachta armies, and then they became reliable reaward of Bohdan Khmelnitsky's army. Poltava supplied revolted people with gunpowder, weapon and foodstuffs. The same time during Liberation war new military and administrative bodies, territorially military units - regiments started its formation on the territory of Ukraine, Poltava became the centre of the Poltava regiment. In 1763 within regiments, division into districts was established. After the Andrusovsky armistice of 1667 on which Left-bank Ukraine remained as a part of Russia, regimental cities (Poltava. Pereyaslav, Lubni, Gadyach) became shopping centers and centers of fast development of productive forces in agriculture, crafts and industry.

On June 27, 1709 Poltava fight which became a critical event during all Northern war took place. From that time lifting of Russia authority as Empire, gradual loss and full liquidation of Ukrainian autonomy began. In 1775, Poltava became the district centre of Novorossiysk province.

In beginning of ХVІІІ century in Poltava, there were some shops, which united about 300 handicraftsmen. At that time, Russian administration of Poltava liquidated the Magdebourg right of the city. Moreover, during same time, the city was famous for its fairs (they were four). Poltava Illinsky fair became famous to all Ukraine. About 40.000 people visited it in a year. Only Odessa merchants bought the goods for sum, which were more than 1 million roubles.

On March 9, 1802, Poltava received the status of provincial city. The city started to redevelop actively. In 1803-1805, the centre in which there was a round area was reconstructed, and eight streets as beams came away from it. In 1804-1811, seven big office buildings were constructed, the capital bridge through the Vorskla was also built, and one street was paved.

Poltava gradually turned to the centre of cultural and spiritual life of Ukraine. In 1818 the institute of noble maidens and spiritual school, in 1820 the school of gardening, and in 1840 the military school were opened. In 1818-1819 the writer N.Gogol' studied in that school. In Poltava grammar school writer M.Staritsky, the historian and public figure M.Dragomanov, mathematician V.Ostrogradsky also studied. In 1844, T.Shevchenko came to the city. In 1846, Poltava intellectuals V.Belozersky, G.Andruzsky, etc. became the members of Cyril and Methodius brotherhood, based in Kiev. The poet and writer I.Kotlyarevsky was born in Poltava. In 1865-1866 the writer I.Nechuy-Levitsky, and in 1871 Panas Mirny, known scientist V.Dokuchayev and his pupil V.Vernadsky, doctor M.Sklifosovsky worked there.
In 1891 at the initiative of V.Dokuchayev famous writer V.Korolenko worked and lived in Poltava.

Considerable deterioration of standard of life of the population during the First World War promoted its active participation in revolution 1917-1920. After February revolution of 1917 in provinces, there were Councils. Provisional government bodies - commissariats and public committees were simultaneously created. Ukrainian Central Rada had considerable support from the population during that period.

After the civil war and the win of Russian communists, Poltava was a part of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Industrialisation and collectivisation processes passed there in conditions of terror and reprisals. Actions for "activization" of grain-collections in 1930-th years became very complicated for peasantry. "Great crisis" in agriculture, Holodomor of 1932-1933 cost about one million demographic losses of the population of Poltava region.

By the end of the 30-th years on territory of the Poltava region 224 industrial enterprises and 312 co-operative industrial gangs had appeared.

In days of the Second World War Poltava was the target of occupation. The city became the staff centre of group of armies "Yug". The considerable part of a city was destroyed.

Citizens of Poltava spent active guerrilla struggle against invaders. Throughout 1941-1943 thirty-nine guerrilla forces and groups, more than 70 underground and patriotic organizations operated in rearward of the enemy. Poltava was released on September 22, 1944.
Post-war building of Poltava was conducted in the 50-th years, there was TV, city gasification. Since 1962, the first trolley buses were started. The theatre of N.Gogol' (1958) and building of destroyed Museum of local lore (1964) became the main symbol of spirituality of Poltava.

In the period of 80th years in Poltava region the oil and gas extraction, chemical, mining, automobile, electrotechnical, textile industry developed in fast rates.

In a year of Independence of Ukraine Poltava appeared as developed cultural-economic centre with 315 thousand inhabitants.
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