History of Odessa
From IX until XV century of our era Pincenates, cuman, and Tatars dominated there. In days of Golden Horde Genoa trading station of Dzhinestra, which was trading with nomads appeared there. After disintegration of Golden Horde at coast of Odessa gulf the Perekopsky Horde came, headed by Hadzhi-bey. For short time, on boundary of XIV-XV centuries, those lands passed under the power of the Great Lithuanian Princedom at which the settlement Kachibey (Kotsyubeev, Gadzhibey) appeared. The first mention of that settlement refers to 1415. With Turk coming Dzhinestra became Khadzhibey (1475), and in 1764 Eni-Dunia fortress appeared there, which during the second Russian-Turkish war on September, 14th, 1789 was took by assault by group of major general Joseph de Ribas with the assistance of the Ukrainian Cossacks under the guidance of ataman Golovaty.
Since 1794, the construction of new port and city, which received the Greek name Odessa, began. By Ekaterina's ІІ Prescription on May 27, 1794 the new seaport was based on the place of Khadzhibey. The same year on September 2 under the guidance of de Ribas the first port constructions were founded. This date, 2 of September 1794- is a birthday of Odessa city.
The city was roughly building under the plan made by engineer, the colonel of Russian army Frants Devolan. Nine thousand people had lived there by 1803.
Since its birth Odessa became a «window to Europe», the basic supplier of Ukrainian grain in the countries of Europe and Front Asia. A.Rishel'e, the Novorossiysk governor (1803 - 1814) and the town governor of Odessa made Odessa his residence. It gave a push to the quick city development. From 1795 until 1814, the city population increased in 15 times and reached almost 20 thousand people. By the end of XVIII century Odessa had become the fourth city of Russian Empire - after St.-Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw by the number of population (403 thousand).
At town governor Lanzheron, the porto-franko mode was granted to Odessa - duty-free trade and storage of import goods was resolved. Its skilful administrative activity promoted edge prosperity, development of foreign trade in the south of Russia and beginning of shipping company on the Black sea.
Prince Mikhail Vorontsov (1823-1854), the governor general of Novorossiysk edge and Bessarabia, involved to Odessa aristocrats and rich people from all Russia. Odessa turned to the main trading city of the south of Russia, one of its largest industrial centers.
Education, science and culture were roughly developing in the city. In 1820 the first Odessa newspaper appeared. In 1825, the archaeological museum opened. In 1839, "Odessa society of history and antiquities" was based. The Rishel'evsky lyceum, Institute of noble madams, man's and female grammar schools, schools, specialized schools, city public library had bee also opened.
M.Vorontsov to a large extends defined special social shape of Odessa, having shown the care about «non-Christian», first about Jews in Atlas of Doroteya in the book "Staraya Odessa". His friends and foes, wrote: "Wishing to recover edge trade, the Prince accepted Jews under protection. He paid attention to rising of intellectual and moral level of Odessa Jews. The Jewish public schools for children of both sexes, main synagogue, prayful houses and a hospital were opened". Trying to lift value of Jewish population in the opinion of Russian society, the governor achieved synagogue visiting by Empress Aleksandra Fedorovna and later, by his offer, emperor Nikolay with the throne successor "examined in a detail" the Jewish schools and hospital. As a result, Vorontsov's plans went right, and Austrian Jewish intelligence and large negotiators with solid capitals began to move to Odessa. They got the immovable property, opened trading houses. The Jewish firms did million turns in the city.
At the governor general of Odessa column P.Kotsebu (1862-1874) much attention was paid to an accomplishment. Passing part of streets was paved by the granite stone blocks, instead of oil lanterns gas lanterns appeared, the first in the city water pipe was constructed, the first railroad line Odessa - Parkany was opened, and building of Kherson railway also began. The Novorossiysk University, the first city state female Mariinsky grammar school and Odessa drawing school were opened and began their work, Odessa society of fine arts was organized. The Rishel'evsky lyceum turned to Novorossiysk University, commercial and other specialized schools appeared. Odessa public library - is one of the largest in Europe. The city became the large scientific and publishing centre. Theatre life raged. At city theatre outstanding domestic and foreign actors acted. In 1889, the City museum of fine arts was organized. To 1890, the "Association of South Russian artists" was founded.
At city head G.Marazli (1878-1894) there were the first cavalry-railways, the city park Aleksandrovsky (of T.Shevchenko), the first in Russia bacteriological station (prof. I.Mechnikov), the first in Russia chemical laboratory for research of products (prof. of chemistry Verigo), well-arranged mud baths. Some tens schools and the national schools, the First National free reading room, City Public library, the Art museum, Children's hospital of Dr. Mochutkovsky, Eye hospital of V.Santsenbaher. Electric illumination was established...
Events of October 1917 in Petrograd and civil war led the city to ruin. The power in the city repeatedly passed from hand to hand (Central Rada, Bolsheviks, Germans, Directory, Voluntary army, Bolsheviks) up to the definitive capture of Odessa by Red Army on February 7, 1920 and establishment of the Soviet power in the city.
With the beginning of war with Germany, the front almost at once approached Odessa. From August 5 until October, 16, 1941 heroic defence of Odessa by armies of Separate Seaside army and part of forces of Black Sea fleet at active support of city population lasted. Those events were recognized in the form of medal «For defence of Odessa».
On October 16, 1941, Germans occupied the city. The considerable part of Soviet armies managed to be evacuated to Sevastopol', and then it played a key role in 250-day defence of Sevastopol. The city was released on April 10, 1944 by armies of 3-rd Ukrainian front under the command of general R.Malinovsky after fierce fights on near approaches to Odessa and in its suburbs. In the fortieth anniversary of the Victory, Lenin's award and medal of«Gold Star» was handed to the hero-city Odessa.
After Odessa freedom as early as in 1948 industrial and port constructions were built up, the available housing was restoring. In the first turn, the mechanical engineering and metal working enterprises revived. The new large enterprises - factories of milling machine tools of Kirov, radially boring machines, experimental mechanical plant, «Pressmash», «Polygrafmash», car assembly plant, cable plant, «Avtogenmash» and other enterprises became operational. By the end of 1950, all industries had worked at full capacity.
Regenerative works in Odessa port were quickly made. In 1950, the port almost twofold surpassed pre-war level in cargo handling. Further the merchant marine fleet of the Black Sea shipping company, which had lost in days of war two thirds of cargo and passenger vessels, replenished with new large-capacity vessels.
Now Odessa sea trading port - is the largest in the country. It has the international category and active balance of goods turnover, it is trading port of multipurpose type. On its territory, the free economic zone operates in which subjects of economic activities have a preferential mode of the taxation. Capacity of port - is 20 million tons of cargoes in a year, the total length of coastal line is - 8 km. The port annually processes more than 14 million tons of dry cargoes and 24 million tons of mineral oil. Transport lines connect the city with more than 600 ports from hundred countries of the world. Ferries connect Odessa port directly with Turkey and Greece.
The big attention in post-war years was paid to restoration and further development of municipal economy. In 1950 occurrence of new branch of building industry - manufacture of modular ferro-concrete designs and details made possible transition to the large-panel housing construction on standard projects. In 1975 the city available housing reached already 12 million square meters - exceeded the level of 1940 for more than in twice. There were new city areas Southwest, Southern, Tairovsky, Northeast.
Now indisputable leaders in their industries are such enterprises, as "LUKOIL - Odessa oil refining factory", Odessa portside plant, "Stal'kanat", "Odesskabel'" and many other things. Many enterprises, which had strategic value in the former Soviet Union, have lost today positions, another one simply stand idle. The destiny of factory "Krayan" (the former factory of Yanvarskoe vostanie) is rather sad. More complicated for inhabitants of Odessa is an example of the Black Sea shipping company, which lost the value and was ruined in the beginning of independence.
Odessa is one of the most perspective cities of the country in respect of foreign investments. In Odessa, work more than 460 joint ventures with the foreign capital. Moreover, their number steadily grows.
In Odessa there are a lot of educational institutions: Odessa State Medical University, State Economic University, National Academy of Law, National Political University, National Sea University, National Academy of Communication, Scientifically - Research Institute of Physics, Odessa University of I.Mechnikova, Scientific Research Institute of Eye Illnesses and Fabric Therapy of V.Filatova, Scientific Research Institute of Stomatology of Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine. In the city, there are tens scientific research institutes, centers of science, design organizations.
Nobel prize winner I. Mechnikov, Nobel prize winner I.Tamm, the winner of Nobel prize S.Vassman, D.Mendeleyev, N.Pirogov, I.Sechenov, G.Gamov, L.Mandelshtam, F.Shvedov, N.Umov, A.Lyapunov, M.Krayn, G.Fikhtengolts, A.Bogomolets, V.Filatov, K.Ushinsky, N.Zelinsky, S.Nekrashevich lived and worked in Odessa.
The visible place in the city life is Odessa National Academic Opera and Ballet theatre. On its scene great singers acted: Shalyapin, Caruso, Sobinov. Many theatres, philharmonic hall, film studio, which is well-known for its films are situated in Odessa.
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