History of Mykolaiv

Mykolaiv municipal arms Mykolaiv - city is located in Northern Black Sea region on the banks of Bugsky estuary at the merge to the river Ingul. The earliest archaeological monument which is found in city territory, is dated a neolith epoch (V - ІV thousand BC). Scythians, ancient Greeks, Slavic tribes, Nogaysk hordes, free Zaporozhean Cossacks knew Mykolaiv land.

In the last quarter of ХVІІІ century, an intensive settling of Mykolaiv peninsula began just after the freedom of Northern Black Sea region from Turkish conquerors and exit of Russian state to the Black Sea. Russia needed its fleet. Under the decree of prince G.Potyomkin in the mouth of river Ingul under the direct command of the colonel of M.Faleev in 1788 the new shipyard was founded. Round shipyard, the small town started to grow. Its name it received one year later, after victorious storm of Ochakov by Russian armies under A. Suvorov's command. Ochakov was captured in December 1788, in Saint Nikolay's Day, the defender of all seamen. The new city was named in it honor.

In 1790 the first church constructed in the city, and the first ship, a 46-gun frigate are connected with name of Saint Nikolay. "Saint Nikolay" was floated in August the same year, and in July, 1791 near cape Kaliakriya it received baptism of fire. From construction period of "Saint Nikolay" on city ship-building factories, and today they are three ones, it was constructed more than 2 thousand ships and vessels, among which there were frigates, battleships, torpedo boats, submarines, etc. The city life was completely subordinated to shipbuilding and fleet. Almost hundred years there was a command staff of the Black Sea fleet. Names of outstanding naval commanders F.Ushakov, P.Nahimov, V.Kornilov, A.S.Greyg, F.Bellinsgauzen, M.Lazarev, and G.Butakov are closely connected with Mykolaiv. During the Crimean War (1853 - 1856), Mykolaiv became the main rear base of fleet. The majority of enterprises that were created in a city, refered to the military-industrial complex, that is why Mykolaiv was closed for visiting by foreigners for many decades. The first educational institution of the city was mate specialized school of Chernomor'e, founded in 1798, and which was connected with the fleet. Such specificity left traces on destiny, character and appearance of Mykolaiv. The plan of city building was made in the end of ХVІІІ century and was already realised by fast rates in the first decade of its existence, and up to now, the city is saved as a unique town-planning monument of classicism epoch.

In 1862, the commercial harbour that promoted transformation of Mykolaiv to the big trading port was opened in the city. Already in the end of ХІХ century Mykolaiv port took the third place after Petersburg and Odessa on volume of trade with abroad, and the first place in the country - on the grain export, its suppliers were steppe provinces. Mykolaiv became the big industrial centre in the south of Ukraine.

Rough events of XX century bypassed Mykolaiv. In October days of 1917 it was named "red Petersburg of Ukraine". In 1918, the city for the first time went through occupation by foreign armies. In 1920, the Soviet power definitively affirmed there. During the Second World War Hitlerite aggressors had occupied Mykolaiv for almost three years. However, thanks to actions of underground workers, diversionary and prospecting groups any ship did not descended from the Mykolaiv building berths during that time. Moreover, at Mykolaiv releasing from invaders in March 1944 the unfading feat was made by 68 seamen-commandoes under K.Olshansky command. It was a unique case in Great Patriotic War history when all participants of one fighting operation awarded ranks of Hero of the Soviet Union, and the majority of them - posthumously.

Composers of "Atlas of Black sea" brothers Manganari, the author of the 4-languid edition "The legend about Russian land" major general A.Nechvolodov, the corresponding member of Petersburg Academy of sciences, the first director of the first in the south of Ukraine observatory of Mykolaiv K.Knorre and the founder of the first-ever sea turbo-power unit S.D.Kolosov were working in Mykolaiv. It was V.Dal', who being on military service, started creation of "Explanatory dictionary of great Russian language". There the founder of Russian epidemiology, the member of twelve West European academies and scientific organizations D.Samoylovich (Sushchinsky) finished the capital scientific work , and in 1790 professor M.Livanov created in Bogoyavlensk (nowadays a Ship district of the city) the first in the country school of practical agriculture.

Mykolaiv gave the first experience of political strike to L.Trotsk (Bronstein). Admiral F.Ushakov, P.Sumarokov, A.Pushkin, A.Gorky, V.Mayakovsky, N.Rimskiy-Korsakov were in the city, as M.Shchepkin - the natives of Mykolaiv region, coryphaeuses of Ukrainian theatre of N.Sadovsky, P.Saksagansky, M.Kropivnitsky acted there. The first book on history of Ukrainian people on the native language - "History of Ukraine-Russia" also was written in Mykolaiv. Its author was N.Arkas. The National artist of the USSR the M.Bozhiy, the outstanding astronomer, academician F.Bredihin, the researcher of Arctic regions G.Brusilov, the known scientist in the field of a railway transportation academician V.Obraztsov, the talented naval commander, oceanographer, the polar researcher and inventor S.Makarov came from Mykolaiv.

For short period for the history Mykolaiv city turned from small shipbuilding shipyard to the large industrial, business, political and cultural centre of southern Ukraine. Since the time of "Saint Nikolay" more than two thousand ships and vessels, among which frigates, battleships, torpedo boats, submarines, etc were constructed on ship-building factories of the city. Mykolaiv - is one of two cities in the world where the heavy overbearing ships were under construction. The city persistently searches for survival and revival ways on the ways of development of local government. The population of Mykolaiv starts to realize themselves as city community. Mykolaiv citizens revived historical arms and city flag, the city Charter is developed, the municipal thinking affirms. The city land acquires new price, and business has been developing.

Fifty eight cultural establishments, which are in the municipal property of the city, operate in Mykolaiv. These are 10 schools of aesthetic education, 4 Houses of culture, club establishments, recreation parks, a cultural-game complex «Children's small town„ Zkazka"», municipal theatre-studio of a variety song, the city cultural centre, the Municipal chamber orchestra, a zoo, cinemas, a network of 35 libraries.

In 2006, Mykolaiv divided the 3-rd place with Krivuy Rig in competition among the best cities of Ukraine of 1-st category, having left ahead only Kiev and Donetsk, Kharkov and Odessa.

Modern Mykolaiv is the political and cultural centre of the South of Ukraine.
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