History of Lutsk

In VII-VIII centuries on the island which was surrounded by the rivers Styr and Glushets, on impassable fenny bottom-lands, the East slavic tribes lived. At that time on the highest hill the strengthenings which in due course had outgrown in the castle which was named "Top" were constructed.

Originally its inhabitants were dulebs,luchans, yatvyags and kryvichs.

In the end of Х century Volhynia together with Lutsk was a part of the Kievan Russia and became its western suburb.
The first written mention of Lutsk was in 1085 in Ipatievsky annals about the powerful fortress which sustained 6 monthly siege of the Polish king, from this date the city history began.

The modern name of the city "Lutsk" originates from the ancient name «Loychesk» or «Luchesk». There are some hypotheses of the city name origin: the first one occurs from the word "luk", i.e. «a river bend», another one - it is connected with the name of dulebs' leader Luka, who based that city, also there is another one version, that the city name occurs from the word "meadow" , however, there are also other versions.

In 1097 Svyatopolk II passed Lutsk to David Svyatoslavovich who was soon replaced by David Igorevich, since then to the middle of XII centuries Lutsk city had been the suburb of Vladymir-Volynsk princedom.

In 1150 Lutsk sustained 6 week siege of Yury Dolgoruky's regiments, it wasn't given way to the horde of khan Kuremsy in 1259.

The grand duke Roman Mstislavovich created powerful state association - the Galitsko-Volynsk princedom. His son Danilo Galitsky who under the European custom called himself as the king, settled in Lutsk in 1227. The city situated on the crossing of trading ways from the North Baltic countries to Byzantium that promoted its development and enrichment.

Almost the century in Lutsk the local princes ruled, but in 1340 Lutsk was taken by the armies of Lithuanian prince Gediminas, 4 years later Lithuanian prince Lyubart, who married Volynsk princess at whom Lutsk received the superiority over Vladimir, possesed the city. The prince residence - Lutsk castle, which had remained up to now was constructed at that time.

By the end of XIV century Lutsk became the important shopping centre, merchants from many countries gathered, and some of them even lodged there, so there were the city quarters occupied by Germans, Poles, and others. 
Then Lutsk became the known political centre where in 1429 the historical meeting of the most influential monarchs of the European countries took place.The purpose was the discussion about the struggle measures against the general enemy - Turks.

The Polish king Yagaylo, the German emperor Sigizmund, Moscow Grand duke Vasily II with the princes. metropolitan Fotiy, the papal legate, the Danish king, the grand Prussian master, the Perekopsk khan and Byzantium ambassador were present at that congress.

The German emperor Sigizmunt called sovereigns and grandees for mutual reconciliation and unification of the eastern and western churches, to the struggle against Turks, and to the assistance rendering to Byzantium, but all those offers were rejected by Poles.

 In 1432 the Magdebourg right was granted to Lutsk,according to which, except all other privileges on the city self-management, it was authorised to arrange three fairs in a year. In the city the salt from Galitsk Prikarpatye and the Black Sea estuaries which then was then sent to Lithuanian and East Russian lands had been stored. After Lublin union in 1569 Lutsk got under the power of Poland, and became the centre of neogenic Volynsk voivodeship and voivode's residence.

 In 1617 in Lutsk the Vozdvizhensky (Chesnohrestsky) brotherhood - one of the first in Ukraine was created. Peter Mogila was its member.

On September, 1st, 1619 the brotherhood obtained an official recognition of the Polish king with the privilege on the church building.

In the brotherhood premise the first printing house was created in Lutsk.

If in the end of XV century Lutsk was considered as one of the best cities of the edge, then since the end of XVI century the period of its gradual decline began - frequent fires, epidemics, flooding led the city to devastation. The cultural and religious city life gradually died away, in government agencies of voivodeship Russian (Ukrainian) language replaced Polish, and the governmental posts were occupied by Poles. In 1706 the city was grasped and plundered by Swedes. 

After the third division of Poland, Lutsk passed under the power of Russian empire and in 1795 it became the district centre of Volynsk vicegerency, then to the Volynsk province, but it didn't led to the revival of economic and cultural life of the city.

During the Patriotic War of 1812 in Lutsk the staff of the second Russian army under the command of the well-known commander Bagration took place there.

In 1832 in Lutsk the grammar school was opened, where Larissa Kosach - the known poetess Lesya Ukrainka studied.
The city life changed only in 1880th years after the railway appearance, then economic growth began. In 1895 in Lutsk 15125 people lived.

In the First World War Volhynia became the place of fierce fights, the Brusilovsky break which entered in the history of the First World War, occurred in the summer of 1915 on the suburbs of Lutsk.
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