History of Lugansk
In the end of XVIII century after Russia successfully finished number of wars, opened an exit to the Black Sea and attached Crimea, there appeared a necessity of southern borders strengthening. With those purpose Old Turkish fortresses were used, and the new ones started to be under construction. For fortresses and for construction there were necessary fleet guns, kernels, and ammunition. With that end, the first iron-works were created on the river Lugan. The "godfather" of Lugansk foundry was the commander of Black Sea fleet admiral Nikolay Mordvinov under whose petition on November 14, 1795 Catherine II signed the decree "About foundry formation in Donetsk district at small river Lugani and about establishment of coal nibbling, which was found in the country". According to that decree in which for the first time the idea of development of metallurgy on mineral fuel contained, Lugansk (Ekaterinoslavsk) factory was constructed - the first-born of southern metallurgy was constructed by 1800 closely to the settlement Kammenny Brod near the river Lugan . The same year on Lugansk casting-gun factory the blast furnace gave out the first pig-iron. It was the first blast furnace in Ukraine.
In April 1796, coal extraction began in Lisichiy gill. "The first mine in Ukraine in the first year of its work gave out 3 tons of coal in a day. There worked 50 masterful miners and 2 juvenile".
In 1798, the factory released its first production - 15670 poods of shells for Sevastopol squadron.
The Settlement, which arose round the factory, was called Lugansk factory. Masterful and qualified workers were involved from all corners of province. By 30-th years of XIX century, there were already almost 200 private houses; barracks in which the poorest population huddled were saved also. Favorable geographical position promoted trade development. Trading-craft institutions and the first vocational school were opened there.
Initially the city was built up without officially approved plan. All vertical streets were called as lines (as in Petersburg), and all horizontal streets had names. The very first street of the city was Angliyskaya Street. Foreign experts, who had arrived to work on the factory lodged on it. There the private residence was constructed for the director of the factory. In the same street, in the family of the factory doctor, V.Dal' was born- the composer of the Russian explanatory dictionary. There were streets Peterburgskaya, Uspenskaya, Kazanskaya, Bankovskaya... In due course Peterburgskaya Street became the central street.
There were two-storeyed houses under construction in which, as a rule, on the ground floor shops, photographer's studio, hairdressers were located. In Lugansk, there were more than ten cult constructions: Kazanskaya church, Preobrazhenskiy, Trotsky, Uspensky, Peter and Paul, Voznesensky, Nikolaevsky Cathedral, a synagogue, a church, and some prayful houses. Unfortunately, all those constructions representing the big interest as architectural monuments were destroyed in 30th years of XX century. Peter and Paul church in Kammennyi Brod was the only saved, but strongly suffered.
In 70-th years of XIX century, building of the railway Lugansk-Debaltsevo began.
On September 3, 1882, the emperor confirmed regulation about the foundation of Lugansk factory based on the settlement. In 1896 German industrialist, Gustav Gartman started to build engine-building factory, and in 1900, the first commodity steam locomotive was released.
In 1882 taking into account economic situation, under the petition of local merchant class and nobility Lugansk was given the status of a district city. In spring, 1883 office benches were opened, and the first Chairman of City Council was chosen; it was situated in one of the best buildings of the city on Kazanskaya Street.
In 70-80 of XIX century in Lugansk new factories and plants appeared. The largest ones became Lugansk cartridge factory (reoriented from foundry) and engine-building factory of Gartman. In 1898 more than 30 industrial enterprises and many small handicraft works and craft workshops were already in Lugansk.
With population increase, the network of educational institutions extended. Some private grammar schools, two state grammar schools, schools, elementary schools were in the city. With industry development, some banks appeared in Lugansk. In 1903, Lugansk as the district city was granted municipal arms. The life of Lugansk citizens was various. Some libraries, cinemas worked in the city; theatrical companies came there on tours. In the beginning of XX century the mountain-commercial club, the National audience, circus-chapiteau, city park were opened.
Lugansk became a large industrial centre. In the beginning of XX century there were 16 factories and plants, 40 craft enterprises, the telephone station, 6 Orthodox Churches, a synagogue, a Catholic Church, Lutheran Church.
In 1918, Lugansk became a capital of Donetsk-Krivorozhsk republic. The city was twice named Voroshilovgrad. In 1990, its name was defininitively returned to Lugansk.
In the beginning of XX century Lugansk confirmed itself as a large industrial centre, as a city with the multinational traditions and special way of life. Lugansk - is not only a perfect city with numerous f parks, squares and cultural monuments, but also one of the largest industrial cities of Ukraine. For example, Lugansk factory of locomotive building supplied with diesel locomotives all former Soviet Union and was known not only in the USSR, but also abroad.
Lugansk - is the native land of many well-known people. One of them is V.Dal' - the author of well-known «Explanatory dictionary of great Russian language» and one of closest friends of A.Pushkin.
There are theatres, philharmonic society, art gallery, and more then ten Higher education establishments are in the city.
Activity of V.Dal, K.Voroshilov, A.Parhomenko, V.Brumel, M.Matusovsky, N.Gastello, S.Bubka is connected with the city.
Under the editorship of: V.A. Kovalenin
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