History of Kropyvnytskyi

Kirovograd municipal arms Kropyvnytskyi (until 2016, the city was called Kirovograd) is located on the coast of Ingul river (river inflow of Yuzhny Bug) at the confluence in it such rivers as Sugokley and Bianka. On the boundary of XV - XVI century the city arose on the territory where the Cossacks originated.

Settling of territory of modern Kirovograd region began in paleolith (20-15 thousand years ago). Since that time, each epoch was represented on open spaces of that edge. Near village Vladimirovka of Novoarhangelsk region, the traces of one of the greatest Tripol'e settlements were found; it counted more than 200 land constructions. The Iron Age is represented by monuments of Chernoless cultures, which was marked by division of craft from agriculture. Antique historians mentioned those edges also. Gerodot suggested that, legendary Eksampley was settled down exactly there - sacred roads of Skifiya. Sarmatians and Goty, Gunny and Avary, Khazary, Ugry and Pechenegi left traces of stay there.

Since the first millennium AD Slavs had affirmed there as a part of Anth's tribes union, and in due course - as a part of Kiev state. The restless life of a border zone, which was rich with constant military collisions, a number of outstanding battles and among them - a victory of hectares of the Lithuanian-Ukrainian armies under the guidance of prince Olgerd over the Tatar hordes on Dark blue Waters (1362) took place there.

Occurrence of large settlements there refers to the middle of XVIII century in 1752-1754 when fort of Sacred Elizabeth based on a place of the present regional centre. The place under the building of future fortress was chosen in December 1752 by expedition under the command of general I.Glebov on the eminence of the right coast of the river Ingul. On July 30, 1752, the fortress project was confirmed. Peasants from the central areas of Russian empire, soldiers of Perm' carabineer regiment and volunteers from the roundabout lands were sent for its building. In addition, Ukrainian hetman Cyrilo Rozumovsky sent 611 workers.

200 Zaporozhean Cossacks carried out protection of construction.

Elisavetgrad was under construction as a fortress for colonization of northern Black Sea Coast, and as an advanced post in struggle against Turkey and Crimean Tatars, and against haidamaki: the imperial army, which destroyed Zaporozhian Host, had acted from there. Under the Belgrad peace treaty of 1739, the fortress was the main strong point of Zadneprov'e lands, attached to Russia. It was the unapproachable stronghold, capable to sustain numerous storms and a long siege; it was a base for concentration armies, capable to crush the enemy.

Fort earthworks were partially saved till now. The fort, which was being under construction for five years considered a masterpiece of art of fortification. However, in review of Russian empire border, which removed further on the south in the end of XVIII century, the fortress lost its strategic value.

During almost thirty years the fort carried out its direct functions, however after Poland divisions and Crimea joining when borders of Russian empire were removed far on the West and on the South, it began to turn to a civil city. Immigrants from other regions of Russia and from abroad were actively involved. Population of Elisavetgrad began to grow quickly. But since the second third of XIX century city development slowed down, because in 1829 it became the centre of army settlements in the south of Ukraine and a place of fighting maneuvers.

After cancellation of military settlements in the middle of XIX century, the region economy was developing more intensively. Elisavetgrad linked with Odessa, Kharkov and Kiev by railway. In January, 1859 military settlements were liquidated, and in 1865 from one-horse town Elisavetgrad again became a district city. There appeared enterprises of processing and food-processing industry. On the boundary of XIX - XX centuries Elisavetgrad was notable for a high level of development of education, musical and theatrical culture.

By the middle of 1890, the quantity of factory enterprises in the city had grown twice, and the manufacture amount had grown in 13 times. Railroad line Elisavetgrad - Balta gave an exit to the sea, and the line Elisavetgrad - Kremenchug connected the city with waterway of Dnepropetrovsk and Donetsk basin. Among the machine-building enterprises, which were guided by manufacturing of agricultural cars and tools, the factory of brothers El'vorty based in 1874, was also stood out.

The begun world war and followed it revolution and civil war were essentially reflected in a region life. Throughout several years, Elisavetgrad got under the power of White and Red armies.

In 1924 Elisavetgrad city was renamed into Zinov'ev city(1924-1934), in 1934 - into Kirovo, (1934-1939), and since 1939 it was renamed again into Kirovograd when by Decree of Presidium of the Supreme body of USSR it was confirmed about creation of Kirovograd region with the centre in Kirovo city with its renaming into Kirovograd. The last renaming - to the city of Kropyvnytskyi - happened in 2016 on the wave of all-Ukrainian decommunization.

Years of the Second World War became the severe test. Kirovograd region lost 92 thousand people. In defensive and offensive fights thousand people were killed. One hundred thirty five citizens of Kirovograd awarded the Title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Inhabitants of Kirovograd carefully honor their liberators from fascist invaders. The city was released on January 8, 1944.

In post-war time the city considerably increased in sizes, its industrially economic potential also increased. Agriculture development led to occurrence of manufacture of agricultural cars. Such large machine-building factories as "Hydrosila" and «Krasnaya Zvezda», Joint-Stock Company "Radiy" are known widely outside of Ukraine. Light and food-processing industries are also presented in the city.

For years of independence, the essential steps to adjustment of facilities work, and development of social sphere was made. Continuing traditions, the region confirmed itself in agricultural machinery manufacture, the mining industry also developed. Agriculture reforming was finished. Positive tendencies in region economy gave the bases to draw a conclusion in correctness of reforms direction, stimulating dynamical development of the region.

3 Higher education establishments, 2 theatres, 2 cinemas, regional studies and art museums function in the city.

Such people are associated with Kirovograd: the writer and the political figure of the beginning of XX-th century Vladimir Vinnichenko, the playwright and actor Ivan Karpenko-Karyi (Tobilevich), who was also the director and one of the founders of constant professional Ukrainian theatre in Elisavetgrad. Among them there were composer Marko Kropivnitsky, the national actor of Ukraine Yuliy Meytus, outstanding pianist Henrykh Neygauz, teacher Vasily Suhomlinsky, poet Arseny Tarkovsky.

At various times A.Suvorov, M.Kutuzov, A.Pushkin, A.Mitskevich was working in Elisavetgrad.
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