History of Ivano-Frankosk
The city was founded on the place of village Zabolot'e. There passed the central trading way from Lvov to the mouth of Danube. The city was founded in 1662 by Polish noble family of Pototsky as their strong point in Galicia and as a fortress for protection against attacks of the Crimean Tatars. The city received its name in honor of voivode Stanislav Pototsky.
On May 7, 1662, Polish king Yan Kazimir granted the Magdebourg right to the city.
Stanislav began from Rynkovaya square and town hall, which are saved until now and changed in a little kind. In further constructions ideas of Renaissance, which expressed in a lay-out of suburbs of the city, streets, temples were reflected.
In 1676-1677, Stanislav sustained a siege of Turkish armies. In 1706, it was plundered by Russian armies in revenge for support Stanislav Leschinsky by Pototsky family.
After devastating campaigns of Turks to Podolia and Galicia during which fortresses in Kamenets, Chertkov and Buchach were destroyed, Stanislav's protective role essentially increased.
In 1772 after the first division of Poland, Stanislav turned out under the power of Austria and became the centre of one of 18 districts of Galicia.
In 1801 owing to bankruptcy of last city proprietor Prot Pototsky, Stanislav and roundabout villages passed to the property of state treasury.
In XVІІІ-XІX centuries, the city was the considerable trading-craft centre of Poland. Besides Poles, Ukrainians, Jews and Armenians which national communities were numerous, had brought contribution to the development of its crafts and culture.
The public life of the city was stirred by revolution of 1848. «Russian council» was created (along with Polish) in Stanislav, the group of National guards was organized, the first newspaper started to leave. In neogenic parliament Ukrainian deputies were selected.
In the city, in 1884 well-known public figure and writer Natalia Kobrinskaya held the constituent assembly of "Society of Russian women» (later - «the Union of Ukrainians»). It was the beginning of organized women's movement in Ukraine.
In 1866 owing to successful geographical position Stanislav became the important railway junction, and one year later - the district centre. Second half of 19-th century was noted by fast development of industrial relations, creation of the new enterprises. Railway lining gave the considerable push to it. Since that times locomotive-repair factory, distillery association started their work. In second half of XIX - beginning of XX century amount of city building considerably grew. Tens administrative buildings, grammar schools, hotels, trading, apartment houses and other constructions built in that years, form an attractive architectural shape of the central part of modern Ivano-Frankovsk.
After disintegration of Austro-Hungary in 1918, the West Ukrainian National Republic was created. During January-May of 1919, Stanislav was its capital. In May the city was occupied by Polish armies, occupation was lasting for two decades. That time was reflected in an architectural silhouette of the city, having decorated it, in particular, by Joseph's church (1920-th years) and majestic Troitskaya church (1935).
During the First World War in 1915-1916, severe fights were conducted for the city. The part of historical building was destroyed and restored subsequently in the newest architectural forms.
In 20-th years of ХХ century, about 65 thousand people lived in Stanislav. The largest enterprise of the city was the factory on repair of cars and steam locomotives. 18 small enterprises were working.
In September 1939, Stanislav was occupied by the Soviet armies and included in the structure of USSR. That period defined by reprisals against the population, an apogee became at the secret execution of prisoners and suspected (innocent people) by employees of Commissariat of Internal Affairs, who was in city prison before Hitlerites arrival.
During the Second World War the in 1944 the city was under fascist occupation. Soon after the city capture, Gestapo conducted mass arrests of representatives of the Polish intelligence. 800 Polish intellectuals were executed on 20-th of August 1941 in Black wood under the city. On July, 26-th, 1942 in the same place the high-ranking Franciscan monks were executed for concealment of Jews. In 1941, it was created the Jewish ghetto, which prisoners in 1943 were sent in camp of death, named Belzets.
Underground workers of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - the Ukrainian Rebel Army, headed struggle against aggressors. In November 1943, fascists made public execution of 27 patriots, members of OUN-URA in the city centre.
In total in Stanislav and its village fences fascists destroyed over 100 thousand innocent citizens.
In 1944, the Soviet army released the city.
In 1962, the city celebrated 300's anniversary. It was renamed and since that time carries the name of outstanding Ukrainian writer and public figure Ivan Franko which repeatedly visited the city, wrote and read his works there.
Ivano-Frankovsk's citizens together with other inhabitants of Galicia enthusiastically apprehended democratic transformations of 1990-th years, which were their motive power. They lifted national blue-yellow flags over the city in April 1990, and mass voted for independence of Ukraine on referendum.
Under the editorship of: V.A. Kovalenin
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