History of Donetsk

Donetsk municipal arms Donetsk is located in a steppe zone, in Kal'minus river heads, in 95 km. to the north of Sea of Azov, it is surrounded by small woods, hills, rivers and lakes. Since a paleolith epoch this territory was settled, later there wandered Scythians, Sarmatians, Pecenegs, Polovtsi. During the epoch of the tataro-mongolian gains slavic people receded in more protected places, and those lands were named by the Wild field. From XVI century the Ukrainian Cossacks, fugitive peasants from right-bank Ukraine and from Russia came there.

From ХVII century in that places extraction of stone salt began, the first salt-making plants were under construction. The population of Steppe Ukraine considerably increased, that was also promoted by the peace treaty conclusion between Russia and Turkey. The region began to develop even more intensively, when coal deposits were found there.

The Imperial government attracted the private capital there, and foreign concessioners rushed to Donbass. In 1866, Prince Kochubey received concession on construction of factory, engaged in manufacturing of iron rails from local materials. In three years, he conceded the rights to 55 year-old technician-metallurgist John Yuz, who was managing the small factory near London before. Having bought and having rented the land, Yuz concluded with the state the contract on forming of Novorossisk society of coal, iron and rail manufacture and society of branch line from Kharkov-Azov line.

In summer of 1869 Yuz has lodged on coast of Kalmius and constructed a smithy which was the first subsidiary shop of the future metallurgical plant. From England by 8 ships the equipment and tools were brought, and also about hundred experts arrived. For 8 months there was the first domain and on January, 24, 1872 the first pig-iron was received. Successfully chosen place for the factory location, presence of a cheap labour, rough railway construction promoted fast development of manufacture.

The railway connected the factory and mines with already operating trunk-railway of Donbass that promoted expansion of metallurgical manufacture and coal mining increase. In 1899 Juz's factory eliquated 17,7 million poods of pig-iron. In settlement territory 9 mines were already working, during one year they extracted 99,2 million poods of coal. Machine building and iron-works started to operate (nowadays Donetsk machine-building factory of Leninsky Komsomol of Ukraine) which let out the equipment for mines.

In 1872 on a railroad line Konstantinovka - Yasinovataya - Yuzovka - Elenovka, which connected factory and mines with already operating trunk-railway of Donbass the moovement began, it promoted expansion of metallurgical manufacture, coal-mining increase. Machine building and iron-works, which let out the equipment for mines, started to operate. Population of Yuzovka also increased. By the end of XIX century there lived already almost 30 thousand people.

John Yuz who died in 1889, had left to his sons a personal fortune in amount of 90 thousand pounds sterling, factory and growing industrial settlement which carried his name till 1924. In 1899 from 17 metallurgical enterprises operating in the south of Russia in boom of 90-th years, Yuz's factory was the largest.

Till 1917 Yuzovka represented small town of one company, in essence being a factory settlement. It posessed all lands and the most part of houses. Business concerns were formed and carried on business only by the permission of "Novorossiysk society".

Yuzovka was divided on southern (factory) and northern. In a southern part factory constructions, depot, telegraph, small hospital and school were located. A little aside there was a so-called English colony - in well arranged, swam in verdure and color cottages there lived managing directors and engineers, masters and employees.

Streets there had sidewalks and tesselations, there was an electricity and a waterpipe. Northern part of Yuzovka was called as Novy Svet- under the name of market and first tavern in Yuzovka situated in there. Dealers, handicraftsmen, officials lived there, the central street and adjoining to it streets were built up by low-rise apartment houses, shops, restaurants, hotels, various offices, banks. In May, 1917 when it was about 70 thousand inhabitants in settlement, it was transferred in the category of cities.

In intervention and civil war of 1918-1920 the city temporarily was in hands of German invaders and White Guards. The Soviet power there was definitively established in December 1919.

In 1924 Yuzovka, it was renamed in Stalino. In July, 1932 the city became the centre of Donetsk region. In addition, in 1938 with the division of Donetsk region on Voroshilovgrad and Stalin region the city remained the centre of Stalin region.

The branched out network of cultural-educational establishments was created in city, there appeared theatres, libraries, clubs. Musical creativity was also developing. In 1930 the philharmonic hall was created, and in 1941 there appeared Opera and Ballet Theatre.

By 1941, there were in the city 223 enterprises of allied and republican submission, 54 enterprises of the local and co-operative industry, the mines gave 7 percent of all-union coal mining, factories - 5 percent of steel and 11 percent of coke. The city population made 507 thousand people.

From 21 of October 1941 till 8 of September, 1943 the city was occupied by fascists. Almost all industrial enterprises in the city were destroyed, and huge human losses were marked. In the first post-war years - by 1950 the industrial production was almost restored.

In November, 1961 Stalino was renamed in Donetsk. Reconstruction and upgrade of coal, metallurgical, machine-building, chemical, food and light industry was conducted in the city. The cotton plant, plant of fish products, factory of children's toys (1972) are under construction. In 1961-1970 more than 4 million sq. m of the general floor space had been constructing. Under the new general plan Donetsk and Makeyevka incorporate in a one residential community on the bank of Kal'minus river.

In April 1978, the population exceeded a million boundary - Donetsk joined cities-millionaires.

1941 Оперный театрDonetsk - is one of the largest cultural and scientific centers of Ukraine: there are 30 research and project institutes, including institutes of Academy of Science of Ukraine (applied mathematics and mechanics, physic technical, industrial economies), 5 high schools created during Soviet time (including university, institutes: Polytechnic, Musical-Pedagogical, etc.). The centre of a high school science of region is Donetsk polytechnic institute in which new perspective subjects had been developing, and where the powerful research sector had been created.

There are18 specialed secondary schools in the city (including polytechnic school, rock, industrial, industrial automatics, etc. technical schools). Among theatres there are: Opera and Ballet, Musical-Drama, puppet theatre; a philharmonic holl. Museum of Local Lore, Art museums, History Museum of Donetsk, television centre, botanical garden are situated there.
After declaration of independence of Ukraine theatres and philharmonic holl activity has quickened. From the middle of 80-th years the idea of revival of Donbass National Theatre which has been embodied in activity of Donetsk Ukrainian Musical-Drama theatre, Donetsk Opera and Ballet theatre, Ukrainian troupe of Donetsk puppet theatre, in creation of the Greek theatre has been affirming.

Today Donetsk - the large industrial, scientific and cultural centre. There is the big junction of railway, automobile and air lines. The city is known also for the outstanding sportsmen winning prize-places at prestigious international competitions.

Under the editorship of: V.A. Kovalenin

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