History of Dnipro
In the beginning of XV century Lithuanians forced out Tatars from the right bank of Dnepro, however already from the middle of the century the Crimean khans and Nogaitsi located in Priazov'e tried to return the lost lands that was partially possible to them (the Low Dnepro).
The border between the Great Lithuanian Princedom and Crimean khanate passed across Dnepro and further on the east - across Samara - means across the territory of modern.
At that time the population there strongly reduced because of Tatar attacks, it also turned away to the northwest, and the name Wild Field fixed to that region.
Territory revival began since XVI century, after formation of Zaporozhian Cossacks and Zaporozhian Hosts organization lower across Dnepro, which were the barriers on the way of the Tatar groups on the north. (In due time the territory of Dnepropetrovsk also belonged to Zaporozhian Host). For the purpose of control over moving of uneasy Cossacks in 1635, the Polish authorities constructed fortress Kodak and put there a garrison from mercenaries. Subsequently the fortress was an administrative centre of Kodatskaya palanka (districts) of Zaporozh'e. In course of time at the fortress the large village was formed. Now this is a village Stariy Kodak on a southern suburb of the city with the rests of earth walls (the fortress was trenched after a failure of military campaign of Peter I on conditions of the Prutsky agreement with Turks in 1711). The lands of Zaporozh'e again got under the control of Tatars, however the right on destroyed Kodak and its vicinities they soon conceded to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The control over territory Russia acquired again after the war with Ottoman Empire in 1735-1739. However, the border with the Crimean khanate passed only in 100 km to the south that stirred to territory development.
In 1764, Novorossiysk province with the centre in Kremenchug was formed on the part of lands of Zaporozhian Cossacks.
Ekaterinoslavl' (the name of Dnepropetrovsk until 1929, given in honor of Catherine II) refers to the cities, arisen during colonization of the South Ukrainian lands by Russian Empire. The administrative centre, which Ekaterinoslavl'should become was necessary for management of already domesticated lands; the City was established as a provincial city by G.Potyomkin in 1777 in the place of merge of rivers Samara and Kil'cheni (around present Novomoskovsk).
That settlement was named Ekaterinoslavl' I, left-bank, when by Catherine's II decree of 22 of January, 1784 the city was transferred on higher right bank of Dnepro. 1787 is the official date of its foundation, when during Catherine's II traveling along recently bought southern lands it was laid the first foundation stone in building of Preobrazhensky cathedral.
After Catherine II death, in 1797 Pavel I renamed Ekaterinoslav into Novorossiysk. However, in 1802, the initial name came back to the city and it became the centre of the largest Ekaterinoslavskaya province.
The city population gradually increased: if in 1804 there lived 6 389 people, by 1853 there were 13 011 people. In 1838 the first city newspaper - «Ekaterinoslavskie gubernskie vedomosti» started its issue. By 1862 in the city were 315 stone and 3060 wooden houses, except cloth factory, number of factories were operated, such as: brick, iron, candle, soap producing, rendering works and tanning factory.
In 1873 on the left coast the railway branch from Kharkov through Sinelnikovo appeared, and in 11 years it was a bridge opening through the river Dnepro and station in Ekaterinoslavl' (on the right coast of Dnepro) also took place. The railway connected Donbass (Yasinovataya) with Krivbass.
Thanks to opening iron-ore and coal deposits around Krivoy Rog rough industrial development of the territory and its centre began in Donbass.
Due to active participation of French and German capital in the city and its vicinities, there appeared some metal factories (successfully operating to this day).
Locomotive depot of Ekaterinoslavl' became the largest in the south of Empire. The city began to grow at the expense of working settlements forming near the factories. The population sharply grew - basically, at the expense of migrants - from 22 816 people in 1865 to 121 216 people in 1897.
In that 1897 in Ekaterinoslavl' the Belgian enterprisers have started out an electric tram - the third in Empire after Kiev and Nizhniy Novgorod. Number of public, cultural and educational institutions appeared in the city. From the first stage during which the centre of the similarly-named province arose and generated, were saved the Potemkinsky palace (1790), buildings of chancellery of the head trustee, about southern Russia colonists of general I. Inzova (1818) and the largest in the south of Russia (1825) cloth factory constructed in 1794. Closer to the middle of XIX century Svyato-Preobrazhensky cathedral (1830-1835), building of territorial hospital (1840-1850) was constructed.
The following stage of city development is connected with the beginning of commercial operation of Krivorozhsky iron-ore pool deposits (1881) and beginning of work of Aleksandrovsky South Russian metallurgical (later Bryansk) factory.
On a boundary of XIX - XX centuries Ekaterinoslavl' was already the largest industrial centre, and it was reflected in architectural shape of the city. Variety of various constructions, which until now substantially define the architectural face of central part of Dnepropetrovsk, were erected at that time. Buildings of English club (1890), Ekaterina's Higher mining specialized school (1899-1900), town council (1901), commercial specialized school (1999-1912), Winter theatre (1906-1907) in which Russian drama theatre is located.
In the beginning of XX century in Ekaterinoslavl' the monument to A.Pushkin was erected, it is the oldest of saved ones in the city. On the eve of the First World War buildings of public meetings (1912), hotels "Astoria" (1912), the Svyato-Nikolaevskaya church and many other constructions were built in Ekaterinoslavl'.
Proletariat of Ekaterinoslavl' took the most active participation in the events of 1905. V.Babushkin, G. Petrovsky, and others began the revolutionary activity there. In October 1918 within hetman Skoropadsky the university, which acts until now was opened.
In days of civil war, the city not once became the arena of fights. In October 1919 Ekaterinoslavl' was grasped by groups of Revolutionary rebel army of Ukraine (makhnovtsi). On November 25, 1919, it was captured by parts of White army (corps of general Slashev).
In the beginning of 1918 after the independence achievement by Ukraine and Ukrainian National Republic declaration it was proposed the city name «Sicheslav» that should have reminded of Cossack character of that territory, but officially the city remained with the former name - Ekaterinoslavl'.
On August, 25th, 1941 the city was occupied by German armies and later entered into the structure of Ukraine's reichscomissariat. It was released on 25 of October, 1943 by armies of 3 Ukrainian Front during the Dnepropetrovsk operation.
After the war, the city was restored and again became one of the major industrial centers of science of the USSR. All factories evacuated on the East renewed production output practically in 1945. Pre-revolutionary and pre-war enterprises were extending and the modernizing, new objects was created: Southern machine-building factory (since 1944 it was under construction), Dneprovsky machine-building factory, radio factory (since 1945 it was also under construction), Pridneprovsky fuel- fired steam plant (1952), factory of heavy presses (1953 -1955), tyre works (1956-1961); a knitting factory «Dnepryanka» (1969), factory "Polimermash".
Since 1955, after restoration and construction of monumental buildings in city centre (1948-1957) the free lands in southern districts of Dnepropetrovsk had actively started to overbuild: Kirov avenue (top), Dnepropetrovskaya street (nowadays - Geroev Stalingrada) - 12-th block, Gagarin avenue (top), and also Novomoskovsk highway and Kosiora street (nowadays Gazeta Pravda avenue) the so-called, "Khruschev's" building.
Along the right coast of Dnepro the longest quay in Europe was constructed. In 1966, the automobile Bridge # 2 - the longest bridge through Dnepro river («the New bridge») was handed over.
In the late1960 - 1970, basically new residential communities of 9-12-floor buildings were constructed: Krasny Kamen', Parus, Communar, Topol', Pobeda (1971-1983), Sokol, Zapadny, Severny, Levoberezhny, Klochko, Solnechny, Yubileiny, district of Streets Kalinovaya, Stroiteley, Gladkova. In the late 1970 -1980 such residential communities as Levoberezhny-3, Frunzensky were under construction, the Substation district, started to overbuild with 16-floor houses on the top of Rabochaya Street.
In same time in Dnepropetrovsk appeared number of buildings of original architecture of public purpose: Opera and Ballet Theatre (1974), Diorama «Fight for Dnepro» (1975). The summer film lecture hall in Shevchenko park (1977), new bulks of the antiaircraft-rocket military school (1978), new hotel in the airport (1979), new circus (1980), the House of the Architect (1980), the House of political education (1982), new polyclinic of the Department of Internal Affairs (1982), new building of the Executive Committee(1983), Railway post office (1983), historical museum (1977), Ukrainian Т. Shevchenko Drama theatre(1979), cinema "Rodina " were reconstructed.
Until 1987, Dnepropetrovsk was closed for foreigners because of placing of rocket production there.
By the end of 1980 years in review of crisis phenomena in economics the city development gradually seized, only overbuilding of residential community Topol-1, Levoberezhny-3, top of Rabochaya Street had been proceeding.
However, in middle of 1990 years the new bas station and 1-st stage of the underground (6 stations of 7,9 km), the new surgical bulk of Mechnikova regional hospital was put into operation, and central market "Ozerka" was reconstructed.
The Soviet architectural heritage of Dnepropetrovsk is rather various, from typical "Stalin" city building to architecture of stagnation epoch, which vivid example is the building of city circus.
In the city for the post-war period numerous monuments about revolutionary and military events and their heroes were erected, for example a monument to V.Chkalov (1981, sculptor V.Nebozhenko, architect V.Polozhy). The monuments devoted to scientists and cultural figures (N.Gogol' monument) occur less often.
Nowadays Dnipro city is the largest industrial centre of Ukraine. T.Shevchenko park which part is located on Monastic Island, and city park of L.Globa became its decoration.
Under the editorship of: V.A. Kovalenin
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