Riddles

One of the theories about an origin of riddles as the folklore genre specifies on the source of language occurrence in the ancient society when there were some interdictions and fears for the names of certain people, beings, events, etc. In societies of all people and times figurative announcement, «the sermon by riddles» was considered as a sign of wisdom. So, at ancient Greeks predictions and oracles statement often became in the form of riddles, they quite often provided some possible treatments of answers. Education and philosophical schools also applied riddles for the formation of their ideas. Very early European thinkers and artists of the professional literature applied to the riddlles. Separate riddles were found in the Middle Ages literature - in the Kievan Russia in Daniel Zatochnik's creativity; at philosophers of Kyiv school of Renaissance (Ipatiy Potiy, Stanislav Orihovsky, Ivan Kalimon and. othes). They got special popularity in XVII-XVIII centuries when literary riddles were created by Bualo, Russo, etc. The new wave of interest to riddles was connected on the one hand with romanticism development in the literature, especially in Germany (Brentano, Gauf etc.), and on another hand - with the compellation to national roots, combined with romanticism, beginning of gathering, fixing and the publication of national creativity samples. Gathering and the edition of Ukrainian national riddles began in first half of XIX century: G.Ilkevich «Galitsky sayings and riddles» (Vienna, 1841), A.Semenovsky «Ruthenia and Galitsk riddles»; M.Nomis «Ukrainian sayings, proverbs and others» (1864), P.Chubinsky «The works of ethnografic-statistical expedition...» (1877), etc. Ivan Franko - the author of the first, unfortunately, not finished research about Ukrainian riddles «Remains of primitive outlook in Russian and Polish national riddles national» ("Dawn", 1884). In Ukrainian folklore the riddle remains insufficiently studied genre. The riddle affected not only creativity of separate Ukrainian poets which wrote corresponding author's creations (L.Glebov, Y.Fedkovich, I.Franko, S.Vasilchenko), it makes the basis of poetic tropes, that is proved  by the lyrics of P.Tychina, B.I.Antonich, V.Goloborodko, I.Kalints, Vera Vovk, M.Vorobeva, M.Grigoriev, etc.
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