Dumas

In general XVI century is considered the beginningof Ukrainian collection of poetic Cossack Dumes. By the way, the first record of the Ukrainian national song can be dated by the second half of the same century (1571 in grammar of Yan Blagoslav). Simultaneously with those attempts of national  versification there was a new grade of the national song: dumas. It was a new Cossack epos which completely superseded Old-Ukraine epos which rests remained in the prose translations or in the form of the verse. Dumas were collected and wrote down for the first time in XIX century. The most ancient mention about duma is in the chronicle ("Annals", 1587) of Polish historian S.Sarnitsky, the most ancient text of duma was found in Krakow's archive by M.Voznyak in the twenties in the Kondratsky collection Kondratsky (1684) «Cossack Golota». Now only mentions of dumas of XVI century in various written sources remained, but there is no full text for today. In the annals of Sarnitsky we can learn, that Ukrainians sang dumas already in the beginning of XVI century, those were dumas about heroic death of brothers Strusovs, however, much to our regret, that annalist didn't bring in the annals any line of the given duma. More successful concerning of data which remained about dumas, was XVII century. In particular, in the hand-written Kondratsky collection the four samples of Ukrainian duma creativity remained: "Cossack Netyaga", «Koretsky's Death» and two samples of playful parodies on dumas. The name duma was entered into scientific terminology by M.Maksimovich who, as well as M.Tsertelev, P.Lukashevich, A.Metlinsky, P.Kulish, carried out the first publications of dumas. The first scientific collection of dumas with variants and comment was issued by V.Antonovich and M.Dragomanov («Historical songs of Ukrainian people», 1875). Basic researches of dumas were left by specialist in folklore-musicologist F.Kolessa who in 1908 headed special expedition on Poltava area with phonograph for repertoire record of kobzari («Melodies of the Ukrainian national dumas», «Ukrainian national dumas»), organised by Lesya Ukrainka. The most thorough scientific edition of dumas in 20 century was performed by Ekaterina Grushevskaja («Ukrainian national dumas»), but it was withdrawn from libraries, and the researcher was subjected to repression.

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