Ballads

The ballad incurred essential change in the beginning of its existence (12-13 centuries) when it was used as a love song, extended in Provence (for the first time Pon Shapten initiated it). In the French poetry of 14 centuries the ballad got initial signs, had constant three stanzas, constant scheme of rhyming, obligatory refrain and applied to the certain person; experienced blossoming in F.Vion's creativity (1431-1463). Ballads can be:

Social ballads:

In the basis the moral conflict of the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law which had been so intimidated before that, that it turned to the poplar lays. The motive of people's transformation in plants, animals, birds is widespread in ballads. In social ballads relations between parents and children, brothers and sisters, feelings of love and hatred reveal are represented.

Historical ballads:

Historical ballads are the ballads on historical themes. The life and the death of the Cossack in the field of fight are described in them, it is told about the big grief which the war brings to people. «What is it white in the field» - it is ballad in which the tragical position of Ukrainians in the Turkish captivity was recreated. In Crimea the Mother was taken prisoner to her daughter, who had already become the Tatar's wife. The daughter proposed mother to "rule" together with her, but mother refused with dignity. The ballad «Oh, the old Cossack was in the Host» condemned the treachery of Savva Chaly and approved his fair punishment by Cossacks. 

The Ukrainian literary ballads

In the Ukrainian poetry the ballad, showing its genre relationship with the duma and romance, spread in Pyotr Gulak-Artemovsky's, L.Borovikovsky's, Ivan Vagilevich's, early Taras Shevchenko's creativity, reaching the second half of 19 centuries (Y.Fedkovich, B.Grinchenko, etc.); the intense plot in it was developed against fantastic signs.

Ukrainian literary ballads of 20 century

In such a kind it appeared in Ukrainian lyrics not so often (Y.Lipa's ballad: «The path is creeping between the bushes, that overgrew with the magical habenon …») and it is superseded by the historic-heroic motives connected with an epoch of emancipating struggle of 1917-1921 to which the poets of the "shot revival» and emigration applied, in particular, «the Book of ballads» of A.Vlyzko (1930) was the real event of that genre. In second half of 20 centuries the ballad got the social value, but it didn't lose its drama pressure, which found its reflexion in I.Drach's creativity, who reasonably named one of his collections «The ballad of everyday life» (1967), constantly underlining conscious grounding of traditional ballad pathos.
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