The Fortess - c.Kamenets-Podolsky

For the first time Kamenets-Podolsky fortress is mentioned in 1374 in the reading and writing of prince Jury Koriatovich who owned Podolia at that time. Archaeological researches testify, that the fortress existed in Х-ХIII centuries. At first it posed as typical Old Russian wooden defensive construction. Walls and towers were basically wooden and partially stone. In XV century Podolia was grasped py Polish-szlyachta state, Kamenets-Podolsky became the centre of voivodship, the important point of Polish-Lithunian Commonwealth defence .
In the middle of XVI century wooden strengthening of the fortress were replaced on the stone ones under the guidance of architect Iov Pretvich. The fortress poses the polygon of extended form enclosed with high fortifications, with towers at every corner. To the right of eastern gate there is a single-tier pentahedral black tower with a well of 36 m. depth and 6 metres in diameter. Further on the circle there are 10 towers - Lyantskoronsky, Kommendantsky, Rozhanka, Water, New, Dennaya, Lyasky, Tenchinsky, Kolpak and to the left from the eastern gates - Papal, or Karmelyuk tower. It was the last name which the tower received in XIX century when Ustim Karmelyuk was imprisonned in it.
In 1672 Kamenets-Podolsky, as well as thw whole Podolia, was grasped by Turks. They restored the destroyed strengthenings, but they didn't bring any considerable constructions in the complex of strengthenings. As the Turkish garrison settled down there, people started to name the fortress and the bridge "Turkish".
After joining in 1812 of Bessarabia to Russian empire the Turkish border was removed, and Kamenets-Podolsky fortress as the defensive construction lost the value, it started to be used for garrison placing, and later - as a prison.
In 1928 the fortress was declared as republican reserve, and in 1937 the memorial estate was organised there. In 1948 the fortress was brought in the state register of historical-architectural instructions of all-union value.
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